Loughborough University
Leicestershire, UK
LE11 3TU
+44 (0)1509 263171
Loughborough University

Loughborough University Research Publications


Publications for John Walls

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Journal Articles

Colegrove, E, Good, B, Abbas, A, Moutinho, H, Johnston, S, Jiang, C-S, O’Keefe, P, Walls, M, Albin, DS, Reese, MO (2022) Investigating the role of copper in arsenic doped Cd(Se,Te) photovoltaics, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 246(2022), 111886, ISSN: 0927-0248. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2022.111886.

YILMAZ EKİNCİ, S, SANCAKLI, S, LAW, A, WALLS, JM (2022) Performance and durability of thin film solar cells via testing the abrasion resistance of broadband anti-reflection coatings, Journal of Energy Systems, 6(1), pp.33-45, DOI: 10.30521/jes.952231.

Clayton, AJ, Abbas, A, Siderfin, PJ, Jones, S, Teloeken, A, Oklobia, O, Walls, M, Irvine, SJC (2022) MOCVD of II-VI HRT/emitters for Voc improvements to CdTe solar cells, Coatings, 12(2), 261, DOI: 10.3390/coatings12020261.

Fiducia, T, Howkins, A, Abbas, A, Mendis, B, Munshi, A, Barth, K, Sampath, W, Walls, M (2022) Selenium passivates grain boundaries in alloyed CdTe solar cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 238, 111595, ISSN: 0927-0248. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2022.111595.

Hatton, P, Watts, MJ, Abbas, A, Walls, M, Smith, R, Goddard, P (2022) Author correction: Chlorine activated stacking fault removal mechanism in thin film CdTe solar cells: the missing piece, Nature Communications, 13, 404, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-28059-4.

Shah, A, Pandey, R, Nicholson, A, Lustig, Z, Abbas, A, Danielson, A, Walls, M, Munshi, A, Sampath, W (2021) Understanding the Role of CdTe in Polycrystalline CdSexTe1–x/CdTe‐Graded Bilayer Photovoltaic Devices, Solar RRL, 5(11), 2100523, ISSN: 2367-198X. DOI: 10.1002/solr.202100523.

Hatton, P, Watts, M, Abbas, A, Walls, M, Smith, R, Goddard, P (2021) Chlorine activated stacking fault removal mechanism in thin film CdTe solar cells: the missing piece, Nature Communications, 12(1), 4938, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-25063-y.

Oklobia, O, Kartopu, G, Jones, S, Siderfin, P, Grew, B, Lee, HKH, Tsoi, WC, Abbas, A, Walls, M, McGott, DL, Reese, MO, Irvine, SJC (2021) Development of arsenic doped Cd(Se,Te) absorbers by MOCVD for thin film solar cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 231, 111325, ISSN: 0927-0248. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2021.111325.

Shah, A, Nicholson, AP, Fiducia, T, Abbas, A, Pandey, R, Liu, J, Grovenor, C, Walls, M, Sampath, WS, Munshi, AH (2021) Understanding the copassivation effect of Cl and Se for CdTe grain boundaries, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 13(29), pp.35086-35096, ISSN: 1944-8244. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.1c06587.

Ulicna, S, Welch, L, Abbas, A, Togay, M, Tsai, V, Betts, T, Malkov, A, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2021) Sodium doping of solution‐processed amine‐thiol based CIGS solar cells by thermal evaporation of NaCl, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 29(5), pp.546-557, ISSN: 1062-7995. DOI: 10.1002/pip.3408.

Watts, M, Hatton, P, Smith, R, Fiducia, T, Abbas, A, Greenhalgh, R, Walls, M, Goddard, P (2021) Chlorine passivation of grain boundaries in cadmium telluride solar cells, Physical Review Materials, 5(3), 035403, ISSN: 2475-9953. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.5.035403.

Newkirk, JM, Nayshevsky, I, Sinha, A, Law, AM, Xu, QF, To, B, Ndione, PF, Schelhas, LT, Walls, M, Lyons, AM, Miller, DC (2020) Artificial linear brush abrasion of coatings for photovoltaic module first-surfaces, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 219, 110757, ISSN: 0927-0248. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2020.110757.

Hatton, P, Abbas, A, Kaminski, P, Yilmaz, S, Watts, M, Walls, M, Goddard, P, Smith, R (2020) Inert gas bubble formation in magnetron sputtered thin-film CdTe solar cells, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 476(2239), 20200056, ISSN: 1364-5021. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2020.0056.

Hatton, P, Abbas, A, Kaminski, P, Yilmaz, S, Watts, M, Walls, M, Goddard, P, Smith, R (2020) Inert gas bubble formation in magnetron sputtered thin-film CdTe solar cells, Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, 476(2239), 20200056, ISSN: 1364-5021. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.2020.0056.

Lisco, F, Bukhari, F, Ulicna, S, Isbilir, K, Barth, KL, Taylor, A, Walls, M (2020) Degradation of hydrophobic, anti-soiling coatings for solar module cover glass, Energies, 13(15), 3811, DOI: 10.3390/en13153811.

Samoilenko, Y, Yeung, G, Munshi, AH, Abbas, A, Reich, CL, Walker, M, Reese, MO, Zakutayev, A, Walls, M, Sampath, WS, Wolden, CA (2020) Stable magnesium zinc oxide by reactive Co-Sputtering for CdTe-based solar cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 210, 110521, ISSN: 0927-0248. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2020.110521.

Oehler, G, Lisco, F, Bukhari, F, Ulicna, S, Strauss, B, Barth, KL, Walls, M (2020) Testing the durability of anti-soiling coatings for solar cover glass by outdoor exposure in Denmark, Energies, 13(2), 299, ISSN: 1996-1073. DOI: 10.3390/en13020299.

Fiducia, T, Li, K, Munshi, AH, Barth, K, Sampath, WS, Grovenor, CRM, Walls, M (2019) Three-dimensional imaging of selenium and chlorine distributions in highly efficient selenium-graded cadmium telluride solar cells, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 10(2), pp.685-689, ISSN: 2156-3381. DOI: 10.1109/jphotov.2019.2955313.

Watts, M, Fiducia, T, Sanyal, B, Smith, R, Walls, M, Goddard, P (2019) Enhancement of photovoltaic efficiency in CdSexTe1−x (where 0≤x≤1): Insights from density functional theory, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 32(12), 125702, ISSN: 0953-8984. DOI: 10.1088/1361-648x/ab5bba.

Hatton, P, Goddard, P, Smith, R, Abbas, A, Potamialis, C, Greenhalgh, R, Walls, M (2019) Inert gas cluster formation in sputter-deposited thin film CdTe solar cells, Thin Solid Films, 692, 137614, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2019.137614.

Bittau, F, Jagdale, S, Potamialis, C, Bowers, J, Walls, M, Munshi, AH, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS (2019) Degradation of Mg-doped zinc oxide buffer layers in thin film CdTe solar cells, Thin Solid Films, 691, 137556, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2019.137556.

Fiducia, T, Mendis, BG, Li, K, Grovenor, CRM, Munshi, A, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS, Wright, L, Abbas, A, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2019) Understanding the role of selenium in defect passivation for highly efficient selenium-alloyed cadmium telluride solar cells, Nature Energy, 4, DOI: 10.1038/s41560-019-0389-z.

Ulicna, S, Arnou, P, Abbas, A, Togay, M, Welch, L, Bliss, M, Malkov, A, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2019) Deposition and application of a Mo–N back contact diffusion barrier yielding a 12.0% efficiency solution-processed CIGS solar cell using an amine–thiol solvent system, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 7(12), pp.7042-7052, ISSN: 2050-7488. DOI: 10.1039/c8ta12089g.

Wright, L, Lowe, J, Bliss, M, Tsai, V, Togay, M, Betts, T, Walls, M, Malkov, A, Bowers, J (2018) Water based spray pyrolysis of metal-oxide solutions for Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 solar cells using low toxicity amine/thiol complexants, Thin Solid Films, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2018.11.040.

Womack, G, Isbilir, K, Lisco, F, Durand, G, Taylor, A, Walls, M (2018) The performance and durability of single-layer sol-gel anti-reflection coatings applied to solar module cover glass, Surface and Coatings Technology, 358, pp.76-83, ISSN: 0257-8972. DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.11.030.

Shimpi, TM, Swanson, DE, Drayton, J, Abbas, A, Walls, M, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS (2018) CdS barrier to minimize Zn loss during CdCl2 treatment of Cd-Zn-Te absorbers, Solar Energy, 173, pp.1181-1188, ISSN: 0038-092X. DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2018.08.060.

Katirci, R and Walls, M (2018) Optimisation of the CZTSe thin film composition obtained by a sequential electrodeposition process, Surface Engineering, 35(10), pp.854-860, ISSN: 0267-0844. DOI: 10.1080/02670844.2018.1495415.

Ulicna, S, Dou, B, Kim, DH, Zhu, K, Walls, M, Bowers, J, van Hest, MFAM (2018) Scalable deposition of high-efficiency perovskite solar cells by spray-coating, ACS Applied Energy Materials, 1(5), pp.1853-1857, DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.8b00328.

Katirci, R and Walls, M (2018) The effect of annealing pressure and time on the crystallinity of CZTSe, Surface Review and Letters, pp.1850151-1850151, ISSN: 1793-6667. DOI: 10.1142/S0218625X18501512.

Samoilenko, Y, Abbas, A, Walls, M, Wolden, CA (2018) Copper-induced recrystallization and interdiffusion of CdTe/ZnTe thin films, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, 36(3), ISSN: 0734-2101. DOI: 10.1116/1.5023501.

Swanson, DE, Reich, C, Abbas, A, Shimpi, TM, Liu, H, Ponce, FA, Walls, M, Zhang, Y-H, Metzger, WK, Sampath, WS, Holman, ZC (2018) CdCl2 passivation of polycrystalline CdMgTe and CdZnTe absorbers for tandem photovoltaic cells, Journal of Applied Physics, 123(20), ISSN: 0021-8979. DOI: 10.1063/1.5023811.

Munshi, A, Kephart, JM, Abbas, A, Danielson, A, Gelinas, G, Beaudry, J-N, Barth, KL, Walls, M, Sampath, WS (2018) Effect of CdCl2 passivation treatment on microstructure and performance of CdSeTe/CdTe thin-film photovoltaic devices, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 186, pp.259-265, ISSN: 0927-0248. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2018.06.016.

Bittau, F, Potamialis, C, Togay, M, Abbas, A, Isherwood, P, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2018) Analysis and optimisation of the glass/TCO/MZO stack for thin film CdTe solar cells, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN: 0927-0248. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2018.07.019.

Munshi, A, Kephart, JM, Abbas, A, Raguse, J, Beaudry, J-N, Barth, KL, Sites, J, Walls, M, Sampath, WS (2017) Polycrystalline CdSeTe/CdTe Absorber Cells With 28 mA/cm2 Short-Circuit Current, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 8(1), pp.310-314, ISSN: 2156-3381. DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2017.2775139.

Munshi, A, Kephart, JM, Abbas, A, Shimpi, TM, Barth, KL, Walls, M, Sampath, WS (2017) Polycrystalline CdTe photovoltaics with efficiency over 18% through improved absorber passivation and current collection, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 176, pp.9-18, ISSN: 0927-0248. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2017.11.031.

Eeles, A, Arnou, P, Bowers, J, Walls, M, Whitelegg, S, Kirkham, P, Allen, C, Stubbs, S, Liu, Z, Masala, O, Newman, C, Pickett, N (2017) High efficiency nanoparticle solution-processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 8(1), pp.288-292, ISSN: 2156-3381. DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2017.2762581.

Yoshino, H, Walls, M, Smith, R (2017) Interfacial surface roughness determination by coherence scanning interferometry using noise compensation, Applied Optics, 56, pp.4757-4765, ISSN: 1559-128X. DOI: 10.1364/AO.56.004757.

Yoshino, H, Abbas, A, Kaminski, PM, Smith, R, Walls, M, Mansfield, D (2017) Measurement of thin film interfacial surface roughness by coherence scanning interferometry, Journal of Applied Physics, 121(10), ISSN: 0021-8979. DOI: 10.1063/1.4978066.

Lisco, F, Shaw, AH, Wright, A, Walls, M, Iza, F (2017) Atmospheric-pressure plasma surface activation for solution processed photovoltaic devices, Solar Energy, 146, pp.287-297, ISSN: 0038-092X. DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2017.02.030.

Womack, G, Kaminski, PM, Abbas, A, Isbilir, K, Gottschalg, R, Walls, M (2017) Performance and durability of broadband antireflection coatings for thin film CdTe solar cells, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 35(2), ISSN: 0734-2101. DOI: 10.1116/1.4973909.

Ulicna, S, Isherwood, P, Kaminski, PM, Walls, M, Li, J, Wolden, CA (2017) Development of ZnTe as a back contact material for thin film cadmium telluride solar cells, Vacuum, ISSN: 0042-207X. DOI: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2017.01.001.

Arnou, N, Cooper, C, Ulicna, S, Abbas, A, Eeles, A, Wright, L, Malkov, A, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2017) Solution processing of CuIn(S,Se)2 and Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells using metal chalcogenide precursors, Thin Solid Films, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2016.10.011.

Bittau, F, Abbas, A, Barth, KL, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2017) The effect of temperature on resistive ZnO layers and the performance of thin film CdTe solar cells, Thin Solid Films, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2016.10.068.

Cooper, C, Arnou, P, Wright, L, Ulicna, S, Walls, M, Malkov, A, Bowers, J (2017) An innovative approach for fabrication of Cu2ZnSnSe4 absorber layers using solutions of elemental metal powders, Thin Solid Films, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2016.12.026.

Abbas, A, Meysing, DM, Reese, MO, Barnes, TM, Walls, M, Wolden, CA (2017) Structural and chemical evolution of the CdS:O window layer during individual CdTe solar cell processing steps, Solar Energy, 159, pp.940-946, ISSN: 0038-092X. DOI: 10.1016/j.solener.2017.11.051.

Kaminski, P, Isherwood, P, Womack, G, Walls, M (2016) Optical optimization of perovskite solar cell structure for maximum current collection, Energy Procedia, 102, pp.11-18, ISSN: 1876-6102. DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2016.11.312.

Meysing, DM, Reese, MO, Warren, CW, Abbas, A, Burst, JM, Mahabaduge, HP, Metzger, WK, Walls, JM, Lonergan, MC, Barnes, TM, Wolden, CA (2016) Evolution of oxygenated cadmium sulfide (CdS:O) during high-temperature CdTe solar cell fabrication, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 157, pp.276-285, ISSN: 0927-0248. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2016.05.038.

Shimpi, TM, Kephart, JM, Swanson, DE, Munshi, A, Sampath, WS, Abbas, A, Walls, M (2016) Effect of the cadmium chloride treatment on RF sputtered Cd0.6Zn0.4Te films for application in multijunction solar cells, Vacuum Science & Technology A, 34(5), ISSN: 0734-2101. DOI: 10.1116/1.4960979.

Arnou, P, van Hest, MFAM, Cooper, CS, Malkov, AV, Walls, JM, Bowers, JW (2016) Hydrazine-Free Solution-Deposited CuIn(S,Se)(2) Solar Cells by Spray Deposition of Metal Chalcogenides, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 8(19), pp.11893-11897, ISSN: 1944-8244. DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b01541.

Wolden, CA, Abbas, A, Li, J, Diercks, DR, Meysing, DM, Ohno, TR, Beach, JD, Barnes, TM, Walls, M (2016) The roles of ZnTe buffer layers on CdTe solar cell performance, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 147, pp.203-210, ISSN: 0927-0248. DOI: 10.1016/j.solmat.2015.12.019.

Yoshino, H, Kaminski, P, Smith, R, Walls, M, Mansfield, D (2016) Refractive index determination by coherence scanning interferometry, Applied Optics, 55(15), pp.4253-4260, ISSN: 1559-128X. DOI: 10.1364/AO.55.004253.

Womack, G, Kaminski, P, Walls, M (2016) Optical optimization of high resistance transparent layers in thin film cadmium telluride solar cells, Vacuum, ISSN: 0042-207X. DOI: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2016.11.031.

Salim, HI, Patel, V, Abbas, A, Walls, JM, Dharmadasa, IM (2015) Electrodeposition of CdTe thin films using nitrate precursor for applications in solar cells, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, 26(5), pp.3119-3128, ISSN: 0957-4522. DOI: 10.1007/s10854-015-2805-x.

Maniscalco, B, Abbas, A, Bowers, J, Kaminski, P, Bass, K, West, G, Walls, M (2015) The activation of thin film CdTe solar cells using alternative chlorine containing compounds, Thin Solid Films, 582, pp.115-119, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.10.059.

Isherwood, P, Butler, KT, Walsh, A, Walls, M (2015) A tunable amorphous p-type ternary oxide system: the highly mismatched alloy of copper tin oxide, Journal of Applied Physics, 118, ISSN: 1089-7550. DOI: 10.1063/1.4929752.

Lisco, F, Kaminski, P, Abbas, A, Bowers, J, Claudio, G, Losurdo, M, Walls, M (2014) High rate deposition of thin film cadmium sulphide by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering, THIN SOLID FILMS, 574, pp.43-51, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.11.065.

Lisco, F, Kaminski, P, Abbas, A, Bass, K, Bowers, J, Claudio, G, Losurdo, M, Walls, M (2014) The structural properties of CdS deposited by chemical bath deposition and pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering, Thin Solid Films, 582, pp.323-327, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.11.062.

Crozier, ML, Brunton, A, Henley, SJ, Shephard, JD, Abbas, A, Bowers, JW, Kaminski, PM, Walls, JM (2014) Inkjet and laser hybrid processing for series interconnection of thin film photovoltaics, Materials Research Innovations, 18(7), pp.509-514, ISSN: 1432-8917. DOI: 10.1179/1433075x14y.0000000260.

Arnou, P, Cooper, CS, Malkov, AV, Bowers, JW, Walls, M (2014) Solution-processed CuIn(S,Se)2 absorber layers for application in thin film solar cells, Thin Solid Films, 582, pp.31-34, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.10.080.

Yoo, S-H, Butler, KT, Soon, A, Abbas, A, Walls, JM, Walsh, A (2014) Identification of critical stacking faults in thin-film CdTe solar cells, Applied Physics Letters, 105(6), pp.062104-062104, ISSN: 0003-6951. DOI: 10.1063/1.4892844.

Isherwood, PJM, Neves, NNP, Bowers, J, Newbatt, P, Walls, M (2014) High quality aluminium doped zinc oxide target synthesis from nanoparticulate powder and characterisation of sputtered thin films, Thin Solid Films, 566, pp.108-114, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.07.032.

Isherwood, PJM, Abbas, A, Bowers, J, Grew, BA, Walls, M (2014) Deposition of cupric oxide thin films by spin coating, Energy Materials: Materials Science and Engineering for Energy Systems, 9(1), pp.95-98, ISSN: 1748-9237. DOI: 10.1179/1433075X14Y.0000000204.

Kaminski, P, Lisco, F, Walls, M (2014) Multilayer broadband antireflective coatings for more efficient thin film CdTe solar cells, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 4(1), pp.452-456, ISSN: 2156-3381. DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2013.2284064.

Maniscalco, B, Kaminski, PM, Walls, JM (2014) Thin film thickness measurements using Scanning White Light Interferometry, Thin Solid Films, 550, pp.10-16, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2013.10.005.

Claudio, G, Kaminski, P, Bass, K, Walls, M (2014) Room temperature surface passivation of silicon for screen printed c-Si solar cells by HiTUS reactive sputter deposition, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.01.207.

Grew, B, Bowers, JW, Lisco, F, Arnou, N, Walls, JM, Upadhyaya, HM (2014) High Mobility Titanium-doped Indium Oxide for Use in Tandem Solar Cells Deposited via Pulsed DC Magnetron Sputtering, Energy Procedia, 60, pp.148-155, ISSN: 1876-6102. DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.12.357.

Dharmadasa, IM, Bingham, PA, Echendu, OK, Salim, HI, Druffel, T, Dharmadasa, R, Sumanasekera, GU, Dharmasena, RR, Dergacheva, MB, Mit, KA, Urazov, KA, Bowen, L, Walls, M, Abbas, A (2014) Fabrication of CdS/CdTe-based thin film solar cells using an electrochemical technique, Coatings, 4(3), pp.380-415, DOI: 10.3390/coatings4030380.

Abbas, A, West, G, Rowley, P, Bowers, J, Maniscalco, B, Walls, JM, Barricklow, K, Sampath, WS, Barth, KL (Accepted for publication) The effect of cadmium chloride treatment on closed spaced sublimated cadmium telluride thin film solar cells, IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, On-line first(99), pp.1361-1366, DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2013.2264995.

Maniscalco, B, Kaminski, PM, Walls, JM (2013) Thin film thickness measurements using scanning white light interferometry, Thin Solid Films, On-line first, pp.1-4.

Lisco, F, Abbas, A, Maniscalco, B, Kaminski, PM, Losurdo, M, Bass, K, Claudio, G, Walls, JM (Accepted for publication) Pinhole free thin film CdS deposited by chemical bath using a substrate reactive plasma treatment, Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 6(011202), pp.1-9, DOI: 10.1063/1.4828362.

Blackwell, S, Smith, R, Kenny, S, Walls, M, Sanz-Navarro, CF (2013) Modelling the growth of ZnO thin films by PVD methods and the effects of post-annealing, ISSN: 0953-8984. DOI: 10.1088/0953-8984/25/13/135002.

Blackwell, S, Smith, R, Kenny, SD, Walls, JM (2012) Modeling evaporation, ion-beam assist, and magnetron sputtering of thin metal films over realistic time scales, Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 86(3), ISSN: 1098-0121. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.035416.

Maniscalco, B, Kaminski, PM, Walls, JM (2012) Combined thin-film thickness measurement and surface metrology of photovoltaic thin films using Coherence Correlation Interferometry, 2012 38th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2012.6317648.

Blackwell, S, Smith, R, Kenny, SD, Vernon, LJ, Walls, JM (2012) Modeling evaporation, ion-beam assist, and magnetron sputtering of TiO 2 thin films over realistic timescales, Journal of Materials Research, 27(5), pp.799-805, ISSN: 0884-2914. DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2011.380.

Blackwell, S, Smith, R, Kenny, SD, Vernon, LJ, Walls, JM (2012) Modeling evaporation, ion-beam assist, and magnetron sputtering of TiO2 thin films over realistic timescales, Journal of Materials Research, 27(5), pp.799-805, ISSN: 0884-2914. DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2011.380.

Conroy, M and Walls, JM (2011) Thin Film Accuracy, Solar, (X), pp.14-16.

Scott, C, Blackwell, S, Vernon, L, Kenny, S, Walls, JM, Smith, R (2011) Atomistic surface erosion and thin film growth modelled over realistic time scales, Journal of Chemical Physics, 135(17), p.174706, DOI: 10.1063/1.3657436.

Blackwell, S, Smith, R, Kenny, S, Walls, M (2011) Modeling the sputter deposition of thin film photovoltaics using long time scale dynamics techniques, ISSN: 0272-9172. DOI: 10.1557/opl.2011.1124.

Leifer, I and Southworth, HN (2010) The moire pattern produced by overlapping zone plates, Journal of Modern Optics, 20, pp.33-47, DOI: 10.1080/713818700.

Walls, JM (2010) Loughborough's Track Record in Solar, SOLAR Magazine, (V), pp.74-76.

Gibson, DR, Waugh, AR, M.upadhyaya, H, Nasikkar, PS, Walls, JM (2009) Application of closed field magnetron sputtering deposition in thin film photovoltaics, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 7409, ISSN: 0277-786X. DOI: 10.1117/12.825257.

Walls, JM and Gibson, D (2008) High Throughout Optical Coating, Photonics Spectra 2008, 42, pp.56-60.

Smith, R, Rhodes, PE, Walls, JM (1998) Modelling the Interaction of Silane and Disilane with Si{100}(2x1) Using Classical Many-Body Potentials, Computational Materials Science, 11, pp.65-73.

WALLS, JM and SMITH, R (1994) SURFACE SCIENCE TECHNIQUES - FOREWORD, VACUUM, 45(6-7), pp.647-647, ISSN: 0042-207X. DOI: 10.1016/0042-207X(94)90105-8.

Walls, JM and Smith, R (1994) Surface Science Techniques, Vacuum, 45, pp.649-652.

Walls, JM and Smith, R (1994) Foreword-surface science techniques, Vacuum, 45(6-7), p.647, ISSN: 0042-207X. DOI: 10.1016/0042-207x(94)90105-8.

COLLIGON, JS, KHEYRANDISH, H, WALLS, JM, WOLSTENHOLME, J (1991) QUANTITATIVE SECONDARY NEUTRAL MASS-SPECTROSCOPY OF THIN-FILMS, THIN SOLID FILMS, 200(2), pp.293-300, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/0040-6090(91)90201-8.

Kingham, DR, Bayly, AR, Fathers, DJ, Vohralik, P, Walls, JM, Waugh, AR (1987) THREE DIMENSIONAL SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY IMAGING AND RETROSPECTIVE DEPTH PROFILING, Scanning Micros, 1(2), pp.463-469, ISSN: 0891-7035.

KINGHAM, DR, BAYLY, AR, FATHERS, DJ, VOHRALIK, P, WALLS, JM, WAUGH, AR (1987) 3-DIMENSIONAL SECONDARY ION MASS-SPECTROMETRY IMAGING AND RETROSPECTIVE DEPTH PROFILING, SCANNING MICROSCOPY, 1(2), pp.463-469, ISSN: 0891-7035.

Rider, GC, Waugh, AR, Wolstenholme, J, Kingham, DR, Walls, JM, Brown, A (1987) IMAGING TIME-OF-FLIGHT SIMS - A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR SPATIALLY-RESOLVED CHEMICAL SURFACE ANALYSIS, Surface and Interface Analysis, 11(6), p.402, ISSN: 0142-2421.

TAGG, MA, SMITH, R, WALLS, JM (1986) SAMPLE ROCKING AND ROTATION IN ION-BEAM ETCHING, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, 21(1), pp.123-130, ISSN: 0022-2461. DOI: 10.1007/BF01144709.

Walls, JM (1984) SURFACE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES: THEIR DEVELOPING ROLE IN THE CHARACTERISATION OF SURFACES, THIN FILMS AND SURFACE COATINGS, Technical Papers, Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition - Institute of Metal Finishing, 1, pp.35-57.

CHRISTIE, AB, SUTHERLAND, I, WALLS, JM (1984) AN XPS STUDY OF THE ANGULAR-DEPENDENCE OF PREFERENTIAL SPUTTERING AND ION-INDUCED REDUCTION IN LEAD-OXIDE CONTAINING GLASSES, VACUUM, 34(6), pp.659-662, ISSN: 0042-207X. DOI: 10.1016/0042-207X(84)90058-7.

DUNCAN, S, SMITH, R, SYKES, DE, WALLS, JM (1984) SURFACE-MORPHOLOGY OF SI(100), GAAS(100) AND INP(100) FOLLOWING O-2+ AND CS+ ION-BOMBARDMENT, VACUUM, 34(1-2), pp.145-151, ISSN: 0042-207X. DOI: 10.1016/0042-207X(84)90117-9.

SMITH, R, TAGG, MA, WALLS, JM (1984) DETERMINISTIC MODELS OF ION EROSION, REFLECTION AND REDEPOSITION, VACUUM, 34(1-2), pp.175-180, ISSN: 0042-207X. DOI: 10.1016/0042-207X(84)90123-4.

Walls, JM (1984) Surface analytical techniques: their developing role in the characterisation of surfaces, thin films and surface coatings, Transactions of the IMF, 62(1), pp.163-168, ISSN: 0020-2967. DOI: 10.1080/00202967.1984.11870695.

Smith, R, Makh, SS, Walls, JM (1983) Surface morphology during ion etching The influence of redeposition, Philosophical Magazine A, 47(4), pp.453-481, ISSN: 0141-8610. DOI: 10.1080/01418618308245240.

Walls, JM (1983) Techniques In Surface Microscopy And Analysis, Microscopy: Techniques and Capabilities, DOI: 10.1117/12.934320.

ZOUNG, YA, BATES, JS, WALLS, JM (1983) BALL CRATERING - A SAMPLE PREPARATION TECHNIQUE FOR TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY, INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES, (68), pp.375-378, ISSN: 0951-3248.

DONE, S and WALLS, JM (1983) A FIELD-ION MICROSCOPE IMAGING ATOM PROBE FOR INSITU SURFACE STUDIES, INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS CONFERENCE SERIES, (68), pp.495-498, ISSN: 0951-3248.

CHRISTIE, AB, SUTHERLAND, I, WALLS, JM (1983) STUDIES OF THE COMPOSITION, ION-INDUCED REDUCTION AND PREFERENTIAL SPUTTERING OF ANODIC OXIDE-FILMS ON HG0.8CD0.2TE BY XPS, SURFACE SCIENCE, 135(1-3), pp.225-242, ISSN: 0039-6028. DOI: 10.1016/0039-6028(83)90220-0.

CHRISTIE, AB, SUTHERLAND, I, WALLS, JM (1983) CHEMICAL DECOMPOSITION BY ELECTRON AND ION-IRRADIATION OF INSULATOR SURFACES - CORRELATION WITH SUBSTRATE-FREE ENERGY, RADIATION PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY, 22(6), pp.1050-1050.

DUNCAN, S, SMITH, R, SYKES, DE, WALLS, JM (1983) SURFACE-TOPOGRAPHY OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS FOLLOWING OXYGEN AND CESIUM ION-BOMBARDMENT, JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY A-VACUUM SURFACES AND FILMS, 1(2), pp.621-622, ISSN: 0734-2101. DOI: 10.1116/1.572191.

WALLS, JM, BROWN, IK, HALL, DD (1983) THE APPLICATION OF TAPER-SECTIONING TECHNIQUES FOR DEPTH PROFILING USING AUGER-ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 15(1-4), pp.93-107, ISSN: 0169-4332. DOI: 10.1016/0378-5963(83)90008-9.

CHRISTIE, AB, LEE, J, SUTHERLAND, I, WALLS, JM (1983) AN XPS STUDY OF ION-INDUCED COMPOSITIONAL CHANGES WITH GROUP-II AND GROUP-IV COMPOUNDS, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 15(1-4), pp.224-237, ISSN: 0169-4332. DOI: 10.1016/0378-5963(83)90018-1.

SMITH, R, MAKH, SS, WALLS, JM (1983) SURFACE-MORPHOLOGY DURING ION ETCHING - THE INFLUENCE OF REDEPOSITION, PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, 47(4), pp.453-481, ISSN: 0141-8610. DOI: 10.1080/13642818308246451.

DUNCAN, S, SMITH, R, SYKES, DE, WALLS, JM (1983) SPUTTER-DEPTH PROFILING IN AES - DEPENDENCE OF DEPTH RESOLUTION ON ELECTRON AND ION-BEAM GEOMETRY, SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, 5(2), pp.71-76, ISSN: 0142-2421. DOI: 10.1002/sia.740050204.

Huddleston, J, Hutchinson, IG, Pierce, TB, Davies, GJ, Tuppen, CG, Heckingbottom, R, Gill, M, Heslop, C, Christie, AB, Sutherland, I, Lee, J, Walls, JM, Vickerman, JC, Keenlyside, M, Stott, FH, Wood, GC (1983) Surface analysis, Analytical Proceedings, 20(9), pp.476-486, ISSN: 0144-557X. DOI: 10.1039/AP9832000476.

MAKH, SS, SMITH, R, WALLS, JM (1982) THE DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACE-TOPOGRAPHY USING 2-ION BEAMS, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE, 17(6), pp.1689-1699, ISSN: 0022-2461. DOI: 10.1007/BF00540797.

CHRISTIE, AB, SUTHERLAND, I, WALLS, JM (1981) AN XPS STUDY OF ION-INDUCED DISSOCIATION ON METAL CARBONATE SURFACES, VACUUM, 31(10-1), pp.513-517, ISSN: 0042-207X. DOI: 10.1016/0042-207X(81)90051-8.

BROWN, IK, HALL, DD, WALLS, JM (1981) THE DEPTH RESOLUTION OF COMPOSITION - DEPTH PROFILES OBTAINED BY BALL-CRATERING AND AUGER-ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, VACUUM, 31(10-1), pp.625-629, ISSN: 0042-207X. DOI: 10.1016/0042-207X(81)90080-4.

SMITH, R, VALKERING, TP, WALLS, JM (1981) THE EROSION OF AMORPHOUS AND CRYSTALLINE SURFACES BY ION-BOMBARDMENT, PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, 44(4), pp.879-893, ISSN: 0141-8610. DOI: 10.1080/01418618108239555.

WALLS, JM (1981) THE APPLICATION OF SURFACE ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES TO THIN-FILMS AND SURFACE-COATINGS, THIN SOLID FILMS, 80(1-3), pp.213-220, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/0040-6090(81)90224-8.

Makh, SS, Smith, R, Walls, JM (1980) The development of surface shape during sputter-depth profiling in Auger electron spectroscopy, Surface and Interface Analysis, 2(3), pp.115-119, ISSN: 0142-2421. DOI: 10.1002/sia.740020307.

SMITH, R and WALLS, JM (1980) THE DEVELOPMENT OF A GENERAL 3-DIMENSIONAL SURFACE UNDER ION-BOMBARDMENT, PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE A-PHYSICS OF CONDENSED MATTER STRUCTURE DEFECTS AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, 42(2), pp.235-248, ISSN: 0141-8610. DOI: 10.1080/01418618009365813.

WEBBER, RD, WALLS, JM, STODDART, CTH (1980) AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SPUTTERING OF TUNGSTEN SURFACES USING FIELD-ION MICROSCOPY AND SECONDARY-ION MASS-SPECTROMETRY, ULTRAMICROSCOPY, 5(2), pp.241-242, ISSN: 0304-3991.

WEBBER, RD and WALLS, JM (1980) THE DEPTH OF LOW-ENERGY ION-BOMBARDMENT DAMAGE IN TUNGSTEN, ULTRAMICROSCOPY, 5(2), pp.252-253, ISSN: 0304-3991.

SMITH, R, THURSTANS, R, WALLS, JM (1980) ION-BOMBARDMENT AND THE STABILITY OF FIELD-EMISSION SOURCES, ULTRAMICROSCOPY, 5(2), pp.261-262, ISSN: 0304-3991.

SYKES, DE, HALL, DD, THURSTANS, RE, WALLS, JM (1980) IMPROVED SPUTTER-DEPTH PROFILES USING 2 ION GUNS, APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 5(1), pp.103-106, ISSN: 0169-4332. DOI: 10.1016/0378-5963(80)90122-1.

Chubb, JP, Billingham, J, Hall, DD, Walls, JM (1980) Comparison of wear behaviour of single- and multilayer coated carbide cutting tools, Metals Technology, 7(1), pp.293-299, ISSN: 0307-1693. DOI: 10.1179/030716980803286559.

Smith, R, Makh, SS, Walls, JM (1980) EVOLUTION OF SURFACE SHAPE DURING ION ETCHING, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, (Paper) SPE, 2, pp.1209-1212.

Walls, JM, Sykes, DE, Hall, DD (1980) FACTORS AFFECTING THE INTEGRITY OF SPUTTER-DEPTH PROFILES IN SURFACE ANALYSIS, Annual Proceedings - Reliability Physics (Symposium), 1, pp.287-290, ISSN: 0099-9512.

Walls, JM and Southworth, HN (1979) Magnification in the field-ion microscope, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 12(5), pp.657-667, ISSN: 0022-3727. DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/12/5/006.

Walls, JM, Hall, DD, Sykes, DE (1979) Composition-Depth profiling and interface analysis of surface coatings using ball cratering and the scanning auger microprobe, Surface and Interface Analysis, 1(6), pp.204-210, ISSN: 0142-2421. DOI: 10.1002/sia.740010607.

Smith, R and Walls, JM (1979) The development of surface topography during depth profiling in auger electron spectroscopy, Surface Science, 80(C), pp.557-565, ISSN: 0039-6028. DOI: 10.1016/0039-6028(79)90717-9.

SMITH, R and WALLS, JM (1979) DEVELOPMENT OF SURFACE-TOPOGRAPHY DURING DEPTH PROFILING IN AUGER-ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, SURFACE SCIENCE, 80(1), pp.557-565, ISSN: 0039-6028. DOI: 10.1016/0039-6028(79)90717-9.

DUNN, P and WALLS, JM (1979) IMPROVED MICRO-IMAGES FROM IN-LINE ABSORPTION HOLOGRAMS, APPLIED OPTICS, 18(3), pp.263-264, ISSN: 0003-6935. DOI: 10.1364/AO.18.000263.

WEBBER, RD and WALLS, JM (1979) DEPTH OF SPUTTERING DAMAGE IN TUNGSTEN BY FIELD-ION MICROSCOPY, RADIATION EFFECTS AND DEFECTS IN SOLIDS, 45(1-2), pp.111-118, ISSN: 1042-0150. DOI: 10.1080/00337577908208416.

WEBBER, RD, SMITH, R, WALLS, JM (1979) SHAPE OF FIELD-ION EMITTERS, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, 12(9), pp.1589-&, ISSN: 0022-3727. DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/12/9/021.

DUNN, P and WALLS, JM (1979) ABSORPTION AND PHASE IN-LINE HOLOGRAMS - COMPARISON, APPLIED OPTICS, 18(13), pp.2171-2174, ISSN: 0003-6935. DOI: 10.1364/AO.18.002171.

WEBBER, RD and WALLS, JM (1979) STRUCTURE AND TOPOGRAPHICAL MODIFICATION OF SURFACES DURING DEPTH PROFILING, THIN SOLID FILMS, 57(2), pp.201-207, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/0040-6090(79)90149-4.

WALLS, JM, HALL, DD, TEER, DG, DELCEA, BL (1978) COMPARISON OF VACUUM-EVAPORATED AND ION-PLATED THIN-FILMS USING AUGER-ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, THIN SOLID FILMS, 54(3), pp.303-308, ISSN: 0040-6090. DOI: 10.1016/0040-6090(78)90386-3.

NICHOLSON, RJK and WALLS, JM (1978) FIM STUDIES OF LATTICE DAMAGE IN TUNGSTEN FOLLOWING LOW-ENERGY HELIUM ION-BOMBARDMENT, JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MATERIALS, 76-7(1-2), pp.251-252, ISSN: 0022-3115. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3115(78)90150-2.

WEBBER, RD, WALLS, JM, SMITH, R (1978) RING COUNTING IN FIELD-ION MICROGRAPHS, JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY-OXFORD, 113(AUG), pp.291-299, ISSN: 0022-2720. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.1978.tb00107.x.

SOUTHWORTH, HN and WALLS, JM (1978) PROJECTION GEOMETRY OF FIELD-ION IMAGE, SURFACE SCIENCE, 75(1), pp.129-140, ISSN: 0039-6028. DOI: 10.1016/0039-6028(78)90057-2.

SMITH, R and WALLS, JM (1978) ION TRAJECTORIES IN FIELD-ION MICROSCOPE, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS, 11(4), pp.409-419, ISSN: 0022-3727. DOI: 10.1088/0022-3727/11/4/005.

Nicholson, RJK and Walls, JM (1978) FIM studies of the lattice damage in tungsten following low-energy helium ion bombardment, Journal of Nuclear Materials, 76-77(C), pp.251-252, ISSN: 0022-3115. DOI: 10.1016/0022-3115(78)90150-2.

Webber, RD, Walls, JM, Smith, R (1978) Ring counting in field‐ion micrographs, Journal of Microscopy, 113(3), pp.291-299, ISSN: 0022-2720. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2818.1978.tb00107.x.

SOUTHWORTH, HN and WALLS, JM (1977) QUANTITATIVE-ANALYSIS OF FIELD-ION MICROGRAPHS USING MOIRE TECHNIQUES, SURFACE SCIENCE, 67(1), pp.299-316, ISSN: 0039-6028. DOI: 10.1016/0039-6028(77)90386-7.

WALLS, JM, BOOTHBY, RM, SOUTHWORTH, HN (1976) FIELD-ION MICROSCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF HELIUM ION-BOMBARDMENT DAMAGE IN TUNGSTEN, SURFACE SCIENCE, 61(2), pp.419-434, ISSN: 0039-6028. DOI: 10.1016/0039-6028(76)90055-8.

PELMORE, JM, CHAPMAN, CJS, WALLS, JM, SUMMERS, GG, SOUTHWORTH, HN (1976) A specimen temperature controller for field emission and field-ion microscopy, JOURNAL OF PHYSICS E-SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, 9(2), pp.96-97, ISSN: 0022-3735. DOI: 10.1088/0022-3735/9/2/010.

Walls, JM and Southworth, HN (1976) The optimum ion species for sputter-cleaning or ion profiling tungsten surfaces, Surface Technology, 4(3), pp.255-268, ISSN: 0376-4583. DOI: 10.1016/0376-4583(76)90037-6.

Walls, JM and Southworth, HN (1975) The Moiré Pattern Formed on Superposing a Zone Plate with a Grating or Grid, Optica Acta: International Journal of Optics, 22(7), pp.591-601, ISSN: 0030-3909. DOI: 10.1080/713819087.

Walls, JM, Martin, AD, Southworth, HN (1975) A combined fim, aes and LEED study of the structure and composition of ion bombarded tungsten surfaces, Surface Science, 50(2), pp.360-378, ISSN: 0039-6028. DOI: 10.1016/0039-6028(75)90030-8.

Walls, JM, Southworth, HN, Rushton, GJ (1974) The preparation of field electron/field-ion emitters by ion etching, Vacuum, 24(10), pp.475-479, ISSN: 0042-207X. DOI: 10.1016/0042-207x(74)90009-8.

Walls, JM, Southworth, HN, Braun, E (1974) Observations of sputtering damage using the field-ion microscope, Vacuum, 24(10), pp.471-474, ISSN: 0042-207X. DOI: 10.1016/0042-207x(74)90008-6.

Walls, JM, Braun, E, Southworth, HN (1974) Field-ion Microscope Observations of Sputtered Tungsten Surfaces, Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 13(S1), pp.355-355, ISSN: 0021-4922. DOI: 10.7567/jjaps.2s1.355.

Walls, JM, Braun, E, Southworth, HN (1974) FIELD-ION MICROSCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF SPUTTERED TUNGSTEN SURFACES, pp.355-358.

Southworth, HN, Leifer, I, Walls, JM (1973) Zone plates and field ion microscopy, Applied Physics Letters, 23(3), pp.161-163, ISSN: 0003-6951. DOI: 10.1063/1.1654844.

Walls, JM, Leifer, I, Southworth, HN (1973) A moiré interpretation of field-ion microscopy, Philosophical Magazine, 27(4), pp.915-927, ISSN: 0031-8086. DOI: 10.1080/14786437308227569.



Conferences

Liu, X, Jones, L, Kujovic, L, Hunwick, N, Infante-Ortega, L, Walls, M, Shimpi, T, Sampath, W, Barth, K, Jones, S, Oklobia, O, Irvine, S (2022) Measurement of band alignment between ZnO based front emitters and CdCl2 treated CdSeTe/CdTe absorbers. In 49th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 49), Philadelphia, USA.

Greenhalgh, R, Hatton, P, Kornienko, V, Abbas, A, Goddard, P, Smith, R, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2021) The origins of void formation in sputtered CdSe. In 2021 IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2021 IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, pp.886-889, ISBN: 9781665419222. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc43889.2021.9519113.

Law, A, Bukhari, F, Jones, L, Isherwood, P, Walls, M (2021) Combined anti-soiling and anti-reflection coatings for solar modules. In 2021 IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2021 IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, pp.1379-1382, ISBN: 9781665419222. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc43889.2021.9518761.

Kornienko, V, Robertson, S, Maclachlan, R, Shimpi, T, Sampath, W, Barth, KL, Fiducia, T, Abbas, A, Tse, Y, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2021) High speed 3-dimensional characterisation of graded CdSeTe/CdTe PV devices using a xenon plasma-focused ion beam (PFIB). In 2021 IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2021 IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, pp.621-626, ISBN: 9781665419222. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc43889.2021.9519098.

Togay, M, Greenhalgh, R, Shimpi, T, Walajabad, SS, Barth, KL, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2021) Transient metastable behaviour in highly efficient MZO/CdSeTe/CdTe thin film solar cells. In 2021 IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2021 IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, pp.637-642, ISBN: 9781665419222. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc43889.2021.9518997.

Jones, L, Bukhari, F, Critchlow, G, Walls, M (2021) Degradation of hydrophobic anti-soiling coatings: Correlating indoor and outdoor testing. In 2021 IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2021 IEEE 48th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA, pp.912-917, ISBN: 9781665419222. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc43889.2021.9518421.

Greenhalgh, R, Kornienko, V, Morris, K, Abbas, A, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2021) High rate deposition of CdSe thin films by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. In 2020 IEEE 47th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2020 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Virtual, pp.2132-2135, ISBN: 9781728161150. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc45281.2020.9300694.

Fiducia, T, Howkins, A, Abbas, A, Mendis, B, Munshi, AH, Barth, K, Sampath, WS, Walls, M (2021) TEM-based cathodoluminescence of a Selenium-alloyed CdTe solar cell. In 2020 IEEE 47th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2020 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Calgary, OR, Canada, pp.2233-2234, ISBN: 9781728161150. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc45281.2020.9300484.

Ulicna, S, Bukhari, F, Lisco, F, Oehler, GC, Barth, KL, Walls, M (2021) Outdoor testing of anti-soiling hydrophobic coatings: Observations of cementation. In 2020 IEEE 47th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2020 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Calgary, OR, Canada, pp.1773-1775, ISBN: 9781728161150. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc45281.2020.9300590.

Morris, K, Greenhalgh, R, Kornienko, V, Potamialis, C, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2021) Comparison of Cadmium Selenide Thin Films deposited by chemical bath and pulsed DC sputtering for use in Cadmium Telluride devices. In 2020 IEEE 47th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2020 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Calgary, OR, Canada, pp.1782-1785, ISBN: 9781728161150. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc45281.2020.9300466.

Bukhari, F, Lisco, F, Ulicna, S, Barth, K, Walls, M (2021) Abrasion resistance of hydrophobic, anti-soiling coatings for solar cover glass. In 2020 IEEE 47th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2020 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Calgary, OR, Canada, pp.1866-1870, ISBN: 9781728161150. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc45281.2020.9300904.

Kornienko, V, Greenhalgh, R, Morris, K, Abbas, A, Fiducia, T, Maclachlan, R, Tse, Y, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2021) Effects of successive CdCl2 treatments on the texture of thin film CdTe solar cells. In 2020 IEEE 47th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2020 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Virtual, pp.1401-1403, ISBN: 9781728161150. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc45281.2020.9300881.

Welch, L, Ulicna, S, Togay, M, Tsai, V, Malkov, A, Betts, T, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2020) Extrinsic doping of amine-thiol solution-processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin film photovoltaics. In 46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC-46); 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Chicago, IL, pp.1867-1871, ISBN: 9781728104942. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC40753.2019.8980531.

Strauss, B, Lisco, F, Bukhari, F, Walls, M, Barth, KL (2020) Novel hydrophobic coatings for soiling mitigation in the PV industry: durability and anti-soiling demonstrations. In 46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Chicago, IL, USA, pp.2899-2903, ISBN: 9781728104942. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC40753.2019.8981166.

Morris, K, Potamialis, C, Bittau, F, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2020) Chemical bath deposition of thin film CdSe layers for use in Se alloyed CdTe solar cells. In 46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC-46); 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference(PVSC), Chicago, IL, pp.1857-1862, ISBN: 9781728104942. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC40753.2019.8981251.

Danielson, A, Munshi, A, Onno, A, Weigand, W, Kindvall, A, Reich, C, Yu, Z, Shi, J, Kuciauskas, D, Abbas, A, Walls, M, Holman, Z, Sampath, WS (2020) Sputtered aluminum oxide and p+ amorphous silicon back-contact for improved hole extraction in polycrystalline CdSexTe1-x and CdTe photovoltaics. In 46th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC); 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Chicago, IL, pp.3018-3023, ISBN: 9781728104942. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC40753.2019.8980466.

Silverman, T, Bliss, M, Abbas, A, Betts, T, Walls, M, Repins, I (2020) Movement of cracked silicon solar cells during module temperature changes. In Proceedings of the 46th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC); 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Chicago, IL, pp.1517-1520, ISBN: 9781728104942. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC40753.2019.8981150.

Bukhari, F, Lisco, F, Moghim, TB, Taylor, A, Walls, M (2020) Development of a hydrophobic, anti-soiling coating for PV module cover glass. In 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Chicago, IL, USA, pp.2849-2853, ISBN: 9781728104942. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc40753.2019.8981377.

Law, AM, Kaminski, P, Isherwood, P, Walls, M (2020) An infra-red reflecting optical coating for solar cover glass. In 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), pp.1913-1918, ISBN: 9781728104942. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc40753.2019.8981269.

Greenhalgh, R, Tsai, V, Abbas, A, Kornienko, V, Fiducia, T, Togay, M, Li, K, Grovenor, CRM, Danielson, AH, Munshi, A, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2020) Analysis of MZO/CdTe photovoltaic device treated with cadmium bromide. In 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2019 IEEE 46th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), pp.2489-2493, ISBN: 9781728104942. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc40753.2019.8981153.

Law, AM, Wright, LD, Smith, A, Isherwood, P, Walls, M, IEEE, (2020) 2.3% Efficiency Gains for Silicon Solar Modules Using a Durable Broadband Anti-reflection Coating. In 47th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2020 47TH IEEE PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALISTS CONFERENCE (PVSC), ELECTR NETWORK, pp.973-975.

Morris, KM, Potamialis, C, Bittau, F, Bowers, JW, Walls, JM, IEEE, (2019) Chemical bath deposition of thin film CdSe layers for use in Se alloyed CdTe solar cells. In , 2019 IEEE 46TH PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALISTS CONFERENCE (PVSC), pp.1861-1866.

Munshi, AH, Kephart, JM, Reich, CL, Hemenway, DR, Shimpi, TM, Abbas, A, Cameron, KC, Danielson, AH, Barth, KL, Walls, M, Sampath, WS (2018) Advanced co-sublimation hardware for deposition of graded ternary alloys in thin-film applications. In 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC); 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC), Waikoloa, HI, pp.842-845, ISBN: 9781538685297. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2018.8547356.

Abbas, A, Munshi, A, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS, West, GD, Walls, M (2018) Investigation of localized phase changes using high resolution electron back-scatter diffraction in thin film cadmium telluride photovoltaic material with high lattice defect densities. In 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC); 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC), Waikoloa Village, HI, USA, pp.1692-1696, ISBN: 9781538685297. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2018.8547212.

Fiducia, TAM, Munshi, AH, Barth, K, Proprentner, D, West, G, Sampath, WS, Walls, JM (2018) Defect Tolerance in as-deposited Selenium-alloyed Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells. In 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC), Waikoloa Village, HI, USA. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2018.8547294.

Collins, S, Hsu, CA, Palekis, V, Abbas, A, Walls, M, Ferekides, C (2018) Se profiles in CST films formed by annealing CdTe/CdSe bi-layers. In 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC), Waikoloa Village, HI, USA, pp.114-118, ISBN: 9781538685297. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547402.

Fiducia, TAM, Li, K, Munshi, AH, Barth, K, Sampath, WS, Grovenor, CRM, Walls, JM (2018) 3D Distributions of Chlorine and Sulphur Impurities in a Thin-Film Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell. In , MRS Advances, pp.3287-3292, DOI: 10.1557/adv.2018.449.

Fiducia, TAM, Li, K, Munshi, AH, Barth, K, Sampath, WS, Grovenor, C, Walls, JM (2018) Large Area 3D Elemental Mapping of a MgZnO/CdTe Solar Cell with Correlative EBSD Measurements. In 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC), 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC). DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2018.8547876.

Fiducia, T, Li, K, Grovenor, CRM, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS, Walls, M (2018) High resolution 3D chemical characterisation of a cadmium telluride solar cell by dynamic SIMS. In 44th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference, 25 June 2017 to 30th June 2017, Washington DC, USA,ISBN: 9781509056057. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366788.

Lisco, F, Goffin, N, Abbas, A, Claudio, G, Woolley, E, Tyrer, J, Walls, M (2018) Laser annealing of thin film CdTe solar cells using a 808 nm diode laser. In 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017, pp.1-6, ISBN: 9781509056057. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366657.

Isbilir, K, Lisco, F, Womack, G, Abbas, A, Walls, M (2018) Testing of an anti-soiling coating for PV module cover glass. In World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion-7, Waikoloa, Hawaii, US,ISBN: 9781538685297. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547272.

Togay, M, Ulicna, S, Bukhari, S, Lisco, F, Bliss, M, Eeles, A, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2018) Exploring metastable defect behavior in solution-processed antimony doped CIGS thin film solar cells. In 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC-7), Waikoloa, Hawaii, US,ISBN: 9781538685297. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547492.

Ulicna, S, Togay, M, Bliss, M, Tsai, V, Wright, L, Lowe, J, Malkov, A, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2018) Electronic properties of solution-processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells using metal chalcogenides and amine-thiol solvent mixtures. In , Waikoloa, Hawaii, USA,ISBN: 9781538685297. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2018.8547821.

Watts, M, Yeandel, S, Smith, R, Walls, M, Goddard, P (2018) Atomistic insights of multiple stacking faults in CdTe thin-film photovoltaics: A DFT study. In 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC & 34th EU PVSEC), 2018,, Waikoloa Village, HI, USA, pp.3884-3887, ISBN: 9781538685297. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547934.

Freiburger, BM, Isbilir, K, Lisco, F, Womack, G, Walls, M, Thompson, CS (2018) Durable high-performance water-based anti-reflective coating for PV module glass. In 2018 IEEE 7th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (WCPEC) (A Joint Conference of 45th IEEE PVSC, 28th PVSEC and 34th EU PVSEC), Waikoloa, Hawaii, pp.2126-2128, ISBN: 9781538685297. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2018.8547886.

Greenhalgh, R, Abbas, A, Munshi, A, Shimpi, TM, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2018) Activation of thin film CdTe solar cells using a cadmium bromide treatment. In , Hawaii,ISBN: 9781538685297. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2018.8547756.

Isbilir, K, Maniscalco, B, Gottschalg, R, Walls, M (2017) Test methods for hydrophobic coatings on solar cover glass. In 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Washington DC, USA,ISBN: 9781509056057. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366246.

Ulicna, S, Arnou, P, Eeles, A, Togay, M, Wright, L, Abbas, A, Malkov, A, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2017) Control of Mose2 formation in hydrazine-free solution-processed CIS/CIGS thin film solar cells. In IEEE PVSC-44, Washington, D.C.,ISBN: 9781509056057. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366174.

Ulicna, S, Arnou, P, Cooper, CS, Wright, L, Malkov, A, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2017) A comparison of different selenisation approaches for solution-processed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells. In PVSAT-13, Bangor University.

Arnou, P, Ulicna, S, Eeles, A, Togay, M, Wright, L, Malkov, A, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2017) Variation of Cu content of sprayed Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 solar cells based on a Thiol-Amine solvent mixture. In IEEE PVSC 44, Washington DC,ISBN: 9781509056057. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366765.

Bittau, F, Artegiani, E, Abbas, A, Menossi, D, Romeo, A, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2017) Magnesium-doped zinc oxide as a high resistance transparent layer for thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells. In 2017 IEEE PVSEC, Washington,ISBN: 9781509056057. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366785.

Potamialis, C, Lisco, F, Maniscalco, B, Togay, M, Abbas, A, Bliss, M, Bowers, J, Walls, M, Rimmaudo, I, Fernandez, RM, Rejon, V, Pena, JL (2017) Photoluminescence imaging analysis of doping in thin film CdS and CdS/CdTe devices. In 44th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, Washington DC,ISBN: 9781509056057. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8521507.

Gona, M, Isherwood, P, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2017) Combinatorial study of Sn-Ti-W-O transparent conducting oxide thin films for photovoltaic applications. In 44th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Washington, DC USA,ISBN: 9781509056057. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8521477.

Potamialis, C, Lisco, F, Maniscalco, B, Togay, M, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2017) Process development of sublimated Cu-free CdTe solar cells. In PHOTOVOLTAIC SCIENCE APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY (PVSAT-13), Bangor University, Bangor, UK,ISBN: 0904963837.

Munshi, A, Kephart, JM, Abbas, A, Raguse, J, Beaudry, J-N, Barth, KL, Sites, J, Walls, M, Sampath, WS (2017) Polycrystalline CdSeTe/CdTe absorber cells with 28 mA/cm2 short-circuit current. In 44th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Washington, DC USA.

Munshi, A, Kaminski, PM, Abbas, A, Reddy, ST, Chandralal, S, Walls, M, Sampath, WS (2017) Characterization of CdTe photovoltaic devices passivated using hydrogen plasma. In 44th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Washington, DC USA. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366464.

Rimmaudo, I, Fernandez, RM, Rejon, V, Abbas, A, Walls, M, Pena, JL (2017) Cl diffusion in CdTe solar cells activated by gaseous CHClF2 atmosphere. In 44th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Washington, DC USA. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366717.

Kaminski, PM, Yilmaz, S, Abbas, A, Bittau, F, Bowers, J, Greenhalgh, R, Walls, M (2017) Blistering of magnetron sputtered thin film CdTe devices. In 44th IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Washington, DC USA,ISBN: 9781509056057. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366120.

Menossi, D, Artegiani, E, Bittau, F, Barbato, JM, Meneghini, M, Meneghesso, G, Bowers, J, Walls, M, Piccinelli, F, Romeo, A (2017) High efficiency CdTe solar cells by low temperature deposition with MgZnO HRT layer. In 33rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam,ISBN: 3936338477. DOI: 10.4229/EUPVSEC20172017-3BO.9.5.

Fiducia, T, Abbas, A, Barth, K, Sampath, W, Walls, M (2017) Intragranular defects in as-deposited and cadmium chloride-treated polycrystalline cadmium telluride solar cells. In , 2017 IEEE 44th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2017, pp.2407-2410, ISBN: 9781509056057. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2017.8366795.

Rimmaudo, I, Mis Fernandez, R, Rejon, V, Abbas, A, Lisco, F, Walls, JM, Pena, JL, IEEE, (2017) C1 Diffusion in CdTe Solar Cells Activated by Gaseous CHClF2 Atmosphere. In , 2017 IEEE 44TH PHOTOVOLTAIC SPECIALIST CONFERENCE (PVSC), pp.1691-1696.

Fiducia, T, Abbas, A, Barth, K, Sampath, WS, Walls, M (2016) Intragranular defects in As-deposited and cadmium chloride-treated polycrystalline cadmium telluride solar cells. In 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Portland, OR, USA, pp.3386-3390, ISBN: 9781509027248. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2016.7750295.

Yoshino, H, Smith, R, Walls, J, Mansfield, D (2016) The development of thin film metrology by coherence scanning interferometry. In SPIE OPTO 2016, the Optoelectronics and Photonics Conference, part of Photonics West, San Francisco. DOI: 10.1117/12.2222883..

Yoshino, H, Smith, R, Walls, JM, Mansfield, D (2016) The development of thin film metrology by coherence scanning interferometry. In SPIE OPTO, Oxide-based Materials and Devices VII. DOI: 10.1117/12.2222883.

Kaminski, P, Abbas, A, Yilmaz, S, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2016) High rate deposition of thin film CdTe solar cells by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. In MRS Fall meeting 2015, Boston.

Walls, JM, Palekis, V, Collins, S, Khan, M, Evani, V, Misra, S, Scarpulla, M, Abbas, A, Ferekides, C (2016) 42nd IEEE Photovoltiacs Specialist Conference (PVSC). In 42nd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Portland, USA, pp.1498-1502.

Kaminski, P, Abbas, A, Yilmaz, S, Walls, M (2016) The microstructure of thin film CdTe absorber layers deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. In 43rd IEEE Photovoltiacs Specialist Conference (PVSC) 2016, Portland, OR, pp.1564-1569, ISBN: 9781509027248. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2016.7749883.

Munshi, A, Kephart, JM, Abbas, A, Shimpi, TM, Barth, KL, Walls, M, Sampath, WS (2016) Effect of varying deposition and substrate temperature on sublimated CdTe thin film photovoltaics. In 43rd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference, Portland, OR, pp.465-469, ISBN: 9781509027248. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2016.7749636.

Palekis, V, Collins, S, Khan, MI, Evani, V, Misra, S, Scarpulla, MA, Abbas, A, Walls, M, Ferekides, C (2016) Near infrared laser CdCl2 heat treatment for CDTE solar cells. In 43rd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Portland, OR, pp.1498-1502, ISBN: 9781509027248. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2016.7749867.

Fiducia, T, Abbas, A, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS, Walls, M (2016) Intragranular defects in As-deposited and Cadmium Chloride treated Polycrystalline Cadmium Telluride solar cells. In 43rd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference (PVSC), Portland, OR, pp.3366-3390, ISBN: 9781509027248. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2016.7750295.

Eeles, A, Abbas, A, Arnou, N, Bowers, J, Walls, M, Whitelegg, S, Kirkham, P, Allen, C, Stubbs, S, Liu, Z, Masala, O, Newman, C, Pickett, N (2016) Analysis and comparison of different selenization routes for nanoparticle ink deposited Cu(In1-xGax)(SeyS1-y)2 solar cells. In 43rd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialist Conference, Portland, OR, pp.2152-2156, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2016.7750014.

Lisco, F, Shaw, AH, Wright, A, Iza, F, Walls, M (2016) Surface activation of rigid and flexible substrates for thin film photovoltaics using atmospheric pressure plasma. In 43rd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, Portland, OR, pp.2204-2209, ISBN: 978-1-5090-2724-8. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2016.7750026.

Lisco, F, Goffin, N, Abbas, A, Claudio, G, Woolley, E, Tyrer, J, Walls, M (2016) Laser annealing of thin film CdTe solar cells using a 808 nm diode laser. In 43rd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference, Portland, OR, pp.2811-2816, ISBN: 9781509027248. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2016.7750165.

Ulicna, S, Arnou, P, Cooper, C, Wright, L, Malkov, A, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2016) Hydrazine-free metal chalcogenide precursor solutions for sprayed CuIn(S,Se)2 thin film solar cells. In PVSAT-12, University of Liverpool, pp.195-198, ISBN: 0904963829.

Potamialis, C, Lisco, F, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2016) Fabrication of CdTe thin films by close space sublimation. In PHOTOVOLTAIC SCIENCE APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY PVSAT-12, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK,ISBN: 0904963829.

Arnou, P, Cooper, CS, Malkov, Walls, JM, Bowers, JW (2015) Solution-Deposited CuIn(S,Se)2 Absorber Layers From Metal Chalcogenides. In 42 IEEE PVSC, New Orleans, USA. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2015.7356369.

Arnou, P, Cooper, CS, Malkov, AV, Walls, JM, Bowers, JW (2015) Solution-deposited CuIn(S,Se)2 absorber layers from metal chalcogenides. In 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC). DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2015.7356369.

Abbas, A, Kaminski, PM, West, GD, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2015) Cadmium chloride assisted re-crystallisation of CdTe: The effect on the CdS window layer. In Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, pp.7-12, DOI: 10.l557/opt.2015.I77.

Isherwood, P, Gona, M, Bowers, J, Neves, NNP, Newbatt, P, Walls, M (2015) Comparison of DC and RF sputtered aluminium-doped zinc oxide for photovoltaic applications. In , New Orleans, USA. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2015.7355900.

Kaminski, P, Abbas, A, Chen, C, Yilmaz, S, Bittau, F, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2015) Internal strain analysis of CdTe thin films deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. In IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, New Orleans. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2015.7356093.

Abbas, A, Meysing, DM, Li, J, Beach, JD, Barnes, TM, Wolden, CA (2015) Structural and chemical characterization of the back contact region in high efficiency CdTe solar cells. In 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), New Orleans,ISBN: 9781479979448. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2015.7355622.

Abbas, A, Swanson, DE, Munshi, A, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS, West, GD, Bowers, J, Kaminski, P, Walls, M (2015) The effect of a post-activation annealing treatment on thin film CdTe device performance. In 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), New Orleans, 14 Jun 2015 - 19 Jun 2015, New Orleans. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2015.7356441.

Womack, G, Kaminski, P, Walls, M (2015) High temperature stability of broadband Anti-Reflection coatings on soda lime glass for solar modules. In IEEE 42nd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, New Orleans,ISBN: 9781479979448. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2015.7356265.

Abbas, A, West, GD, Bowers, JW, Kaminski, PM, Maniscalco, B, Walls, JM, Barth K L, Sampath, WS (2014) Cadmium Chloride Assisted Re-Crystallization of CdTe: The effect of annealing over-treatment. In Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), 2014 IEEE 40th, Denver, pp.0701-0706, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925018.

Crozier, ML, Adamson, P, Brunton, A, Henley, S, Shephard, JD, Kartpou, G, Irvine, S, Kaminski, PM, Walls, JM (2014) Recent developments toward a one step thin-film PV interconnection process using laser scribing and inkjet printing. In Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), 2014 IEEE 40th, Denver, pp.2784-2788.

Kaminski, PM, Womack, G, Walls, JM (2014) Broadband anti-reflection coatings for thin film photovoltaics. In Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC), 2014 IEEE 40th, Denver, pp.2778-2783.

Lisco, F, Abbas, A, Bowers, J, Claudio, G, Kaminski, PM, Walls, JM (2014) Electrodeposition of CdTe films on CdS layers deposited using magnetron sputtering and chemical bath deposition. In PVSAT-10, Loughborough, pp.145-148.

Crozier, M, Brunton, A, Jiang, M, Henley, S, Shephard, J, Abbas, A, Bowers, JW, Kaminski, PM, Walls, JM (2014) Inkjet and laser hybrid processing for the series interconnection of TF-PV. In PVSAT-10, Loughborough, pp.1-4.

Arnou, P, Bowers, JW, Walls, JW (2014) Ultrasonically sprayed TCO layers for thin film solar cells. In PVSAT-10, Loughborough, pp.129-132.

Isherwood, PJM, Bowers, JW, Walls, JM (2014) Band gap engineering of P-type oxides. In PVSAT-10, Loughborough, pp.137-140.

Kaminski, PM, Lisco, F, Bass, K, Barrows, AT, Lidzey, DG, Walls, JM (2014) Multilayer Broadband Anti-Reflective Coatings for Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells. In PVSAT-10, Loughborough, pp.161-164.

Abbas, A, Maniscalco, B, Bowers, J, Kaminski, P, West, G, Walls, M (2014) Initiation of the cadmium chloride assisted re-crystallization process of magnetron sputtered thin film CdTe. In 2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC); 2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Tampa, FL, pp.1930-1934, ISBN: 9781479932993. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2013.6744847.

Arnou, N, Bowers, J, Walls, M (2014) Aluminium-doped zinc oxide deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis for thin film solar cell applications. In IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, Denver, USA. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6924920.

Abbas, A, West, G, Bowers, J, Kaminski, P, Maniscalco, B, Walls, M, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS (2014) Cadmium chloride-assisted re-crystallization of CdTe: the effect of annealing over-treatment. In IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, Demver, USA. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925018.

Kaminski, P, Lisco, F, Abbas, A, Bowers, J, Claudio, G, Walls, M (2014) Oxygenated CdS window layers for thin film CdTe photovoltaics by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. In 2014 IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, PVSC 2014, pp.1626-1631, ISBN: 9781479943982. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925231.

Isherwood, P and Walls, M (2014) Cupric oxide-based p-type transparent conductors. In Energy Procedia, pp.129-134, DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.12.354.

Munshi, A, Abbas, A, Raguse, J, Barth, KL, Sampath, WS, Walls, M (2014) Effect of varying process parameters on CdTe thin film device performance and its relationship to film microstructure. In , Denver, CO, pp.1643-1648, DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2014.6925235.

Abbas, A, West, GD, Bowers, JW, Kaminski, PM, Maniscalco, B, Walls, JM, Sampath, WS, Barth, KL (2013) Cadmium chloride assisted re-crystallization of CdTe: The effect of the annealing temperature. In 2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2013.6744166.

Kaminski, PM, Abbas, A, Bowers, JW, Claudio, G, Maniscalco, B, Walls, JM, Crozier, ML, Brunton, AN (2013) Characterization of contacts produced using a laser ablation/inkjet one step interconnect process for thin film photovoltaics. In 2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2013.6744471.

Crozier, ML, Brunton, AN, Abbas, A, Bowers, JW, Kaminski, PM, Walls, JM, Shephard, JD (2013) One step thin-film PV interconnection process using laser and inkjet. In 2013 IEEE 39th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2013.6745181.

Abbas, A, West, GD, Bowers, JW, Isherwood, P, Kaminski, PM, Maniscalco, B, Rowley, P, Walls, JM, Barricklow, K, Sampath, WS, Barth, KL (2013) The effect of cadmium chloride treatment on close spaced sublimated cadmium telluride thin film solar cells. In 2012 IEEE 38th Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) PART 2. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc-vol2.2013.6656778.

Lisco, F, Bass, K, Kaminski, PM, Bowers, JW, Losurdo, M, Claudio, G, Walls, JM (2013) Improved chemical bath deposition of CdS on FTO coated glass using a plasma surface pre-treatment. In 9th Photovoltaic Science, Applications and Technology Conference, Swansea, pp.171-174.

Schuler, GP, Maniscalco, B, Bowers, JW, Claudio, G, Walls, JM (2013) Optimisation of cadmium chloride solution processing of close space sublimated thin film CdTe solar cells. In 9th Photovoltaic Science, Applications and Technology Conference, Swansea, pp.175-178.

Arnou, P, Bowers, JW, Walls, JM (2013) Ultrasonically sprayed aluminium-doped zinc oxide layers for transparent conductive oxide in thin film solar cells. In 9th Photovoltaic Science, Applications and Technology Conference, Swansea, pp.231-234.

Ali, JMY and Walls, JM (2013) Studies of laser generated debris in crystalline silicon solar cells. In 2013 International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for Sustainability (ICEETS), 2013 International Conference on Energy Efficient Technologies for Sustainability. DOI: 10.1109/iceets.2013.6533498.

Isherwood, PJM, Maniscalco, B, Lisco, F, Kaminski, PM, Bowers, JW, Walls, JM (2013) Cupric Oxide Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications. In , MRS Proceedings, pp.185-190, DOI: 10.1557/opl.2013.978.

Walls, JM, Abbas, A, West, GD, Bowers, JW, Isherwood, PJM, Kaminski, PM, Maniscalco, B, Sampath, WS, Barth, KL (2013) The Effect of Annealing Treatments on Close Spaced Sublimated Cadmium Telluride Thin Film Solar Cells. In , MRS Proceedings, pp.147-152, DOI: 10.1557/opl.2012.1704.

Blackwell, S, Smith, R, Kenny, SD, Walls, JM (2012) Atomistic modelling of titania grown using PVD methods. In , Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp.2306-2310, ISBN: 9781467300643. DOI: 10.1109/PVSC.2012.6318059.

Maniscalco, B, Kaminski, PM, Claudio, G, Walls, JM, Yu, Y, Mansfield, D, Crozier, M, Brunton, A (2012) CHARACTERISATION OF LASER SCRIBES IN THIN FILM PHOTOVOLTAICS BY COHERENCE CORRELATION INTERFEROMETRY. In 27th EU-PVSC, Frankfurt, pp.2808-2811.

Mansicalco, B, Kaminski, PM, Bass, K, Abbas, A, West, G, Rowley, PN, Claudio, G, Walls, JM (2012) Advanced metrology of Laser Groove Buried Contact processing for silicon CPV. In 2012 MRS Spring Meeting, San Francisco, pp.B Maniscalco, P M Kaminski, K Bass, A Abbas, G West, P.N. Rowley, G Claudio and J M Walls (2012). Advanced metrology of Laser Groove Buried Contact processing for silicon CPV. MRS Proceedings, 1447, mrss12-1447-v10-02 doi:10.1557/opl.2012.1170.-B Maniscalco, P M Kaminski, K Bass, A Abbas, G West, P.N. Rowley, G Claudio and J M Walls (2012). Advanced metrology of Laser Groove Buried Contact processing for silicon CPV. MRS Proceedings, 1447, mrss12-1447-v10-02 doi:10.1557/opl.2012.1170, DOI: 10.1557/opl.2012.1170.

Abbas, A, Bowers, JW, Maniscalco, B, Moh, S, West, GD, Rowley, PN, Upadhyaya, HM, Walls, JM (2012) Characterization of thin film CdTe photovoltaic materials deposited by high plasma density magnetron sputtering. In , Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, pp.145-150, ISBN: 9781605113005. DOI: 10.1557/opl.2011.835.

Kaminski, PM, Bass, K, Maniscalco, B, Walls, JM, Claudio, G (2011) SILICON CARBON-NITRIDE (SICXNY:H) BY HIGH TARGET UTILISATION SYSTEM (HITUS) FOR CRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELL ANTI-REFLECTIVE COATING AND PASSIVATION. In 26th EU PVSEC, Hamburg, pp.189-192.

Maniscalco, B, Kaminski, PM, Conroy, M, Mansfield, D, Yu, Y, Bass, K, Claudio, G, Walls, JM (2011) METROLOGY OF SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS USING COHERENCE CORRELATION INTERFEROMETRY. In 37th IEEE PVSC, Seattle, pp.3370-3374.

Maniscalco, B, Kaminski, PM, Conroy, M, Mansfield, D, Yu, Y, Bass, K, Claudio, G, Walls, JM (2011) Metrology of silicon photovoltaic cells using Coherence Correlation Interferometry. In 2011 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2011 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. DOI: 10.1109/pvsc.2011.6186670.

Maniscalco, B, Kaminski, P, Abbas, A, Bass, K, Claudio, G, Upadhyaya, HM, Walls, JM (2011) Metrology of Photovoltaic Materials Using Coherence Correlation Interferometry. In 7th Photovoltaic Science Application and Technology PVSAT-7 Proceedings, PVSAT-7, Edinburgh, pp.1-4.

Kaminski, P, Claudio, G, Bass, K, Walls, JM (2010) Preparation and optical characterisation of silicon nitride and aluminium nitride films for silicon solar cell antireflective coating application. In Hutchins, M and Pearsall, N (ed) PVSAT-6 Photovoltaic Science Application and Technology, Conference proceedings C91 PVSAT-6, Chilworth Manor, University of Southampton, UK, pp.131-134, ISBN: 0904963756.

Gibson, DR, Waugh, AR, Upadhyaya, HM, Nasikkar, PS, Walls, JM (2010) Low Stress Transmitting Conducting Oxides on Polymer Sheet. In 52nd Annual Technical Conference Proceedings, SVC, Orlando, Florida, US, pp.16-20.

Nasikkar, PS, Brinkley, IT, Gibson, DR, Waugh, AR, Upadhyaya, HM, Walls, JM (2010) Characterisation of Closed Field Magnetron Sputtered ITO and CdTe Thin Films for Use in Solar Cells. In 6th Photovoltaic Science Application and Technology PVSAT-6 Proceedings, PVSAT, Southampton, pp.127-130, ISBN: 0904963756.

Gibson, DR, Brinkley, I, Waddell, EM, Walls, JM (2008) Closed field magnetron sputtering: new generation sputtering process for optical coatings. In , ADVANCES IN OPTICAL THIN FILMS III,ISBN: 978-0-8194-7331-8. DOI: 10.1117/12.797152.

Gibson, DR, Brinkley, I, Waddell, EM, Walls, J (2007) Flexible high throughput deposition of optical coatings using closed field magnetron sputtering. In , Optics InfoBase Conference Papers,ISBN: 9781557528414.

Gibson, DR, Brinkley, I, Waddell, EM, Walls, J (2007) Flexible high throughput deposition of optical coatings using closed field magnetron sputtering. In , Optics InfoBase Conference Papers,ISBN: 9781557528414. DOI: 10.1364/oic.2007.ma4.

Gibson, DR, Brinkley, I, Hall, GW, Waddell, EM, Walls, JM (2006) Deposition of multilayer optical coatings using closed field magnetron sputtering. In , ADVANCES IN THIN - FILM COATINGS FOR OPTICAL APPLICATIONS III,ISBN: 0-8194-6365-5. DOI: 10.1117/12.679052.

Walls, JM, Brinkley, IT, Gibson, DR, Waddell, EM (2005) Super smooth metal oxide thin films using closed field reactive magnetron sputtering. In , Proceedings, Annual Technical Conference - Society of Vacuum Coaters, pp.370-374.

Gibson, DR, Brinkley, I, Waddell, EM, Walls, JM (2005) High-rate deposition of optical coatings by closed-field magnetron sputtering. In Optical Systems Design 2005, SPIE Proceedings. DOI: 10.1117/12.624774.

Gibson, DR, Brinkley, I, Walls, JM (2004) Optical coatings and thin films for display technologies using closed field magnetron sputtering. In , INTEGRATED OPTICAL DEVICES, NANOSTRUCTURES, AND DISPLAYS, pp.156-165, ISBN: 0-8194-5571-7. DOI: 10.1117/12.578435.

Walls, JM, Gibson, DR, Brinkley, I, Teer, DG, Teer, P, Hampshire, J (2003) Closed Field Magnetron Sputtering: A New Strategy for Multilayer Optical Coatings. In , Proceedings, Annual Technical Conference - Society of Vacuum Coaters, pp.387-392.

RIDER, GC, WAUGH, AR, WOLSTENHOLME, J, KINGHAM, DR, WALLS, JM, BROWN, A (1988) IMAGING TIME-OF-FLIGHT SIMS - A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR SPATIALLY-RESOLVED CHEMICAL SURFACE-ANALYSIS. In , SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS, pp.402-402.

Rider, GC, Waugh, AR, Wolstenholme, J, Kingham, DR, Walls, JM, Brown, A (1988) IMAGING TIME-OF-FLIGHT SIMS - A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR SPATIALLY-RESOLVED CHEMICAL SURFACE ANALYSIS. In , Journal of molecular electronics, p.402.

Sykes, DE, Walls, JM, Raffle, JF (1983) SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRY: A MATERIALS DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUE FOR THE LIGHTING INDUSTRY. In , p.160.

Walls, JM and Sykes, DE (1982) SIMS: A DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUE FOR SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSING. In , pp.214-218.



Books

Walls, JM and Smith, R (1994) Surface science techniques, Pergamon Pr, ISBN: 9780080421483.

Walls, JM (1990) Methods of surface analysis, Cambridge Univ Pr, ISBN: 9780521386906.

Walls, JM (1980) Field-ion microscopy and related techniques,ISBN: 9780906989012.



Chapters

Walls, JM and Smith R, (1990) Ion erosion in surface analysis. In Walls, JM (ed) Methods of surface analysis, Cambridge Univ Pr,ISBN: 9780521386906.

Walls, JM (1982) Surface analysis by Auger and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In Surface Analysis and Pretreatment of Plastics and Metals, Applied Science Publishers, pp.13-44, ISBN: 0-85334-992-4.



Patents

Walls, JM, Spencer, AG, Waugh, AR, White, NH (Accepted for publication) Masking means and cleaning techniques for surfaces or substrates.

Walls, JM, Spencer, AG, Waugh, AR, White, NH (Accepted for publication) Apparatus for coating substrates.

Walls, JM, Spencer, AG, Waugh, AR, White, (Accepted for publication) Improvements relating to the coating of lenses by sputter deposition.

Walls, JM, Spencer, AG, Waugh, AR, White, NH (Accepted for publication) Coatings for Optical lens having low surface energy properties.

Walls, JM and Stonestreet, P (Accepted for publication) Seals for bakeable vacuum valves.

Walls, JM, Spencer, AG, Waugh, AR, White, NH (Accepted for publication) Apparatus for coating substrates.

Walls, JM, White, NH, Waugh, AR, Spencer, AG (Accepted for publication) Apparatus for coating substrates’.

Walls, JM, Spencer, AG, Jafer, H, Waugh, AR, White, NH (Accepted for publication) Plasma Sources.

Walls, JM, Spencer, AG, Jafer, H, Waugh, AR, White, NH (Accepted for publication) Magnet array for magnetrons.

Walls, JM, Spencer, AG, Jafer, H, Waugh, AR, White, NH (Accepted for publication) Integrated lens check.

Walls, JM and Jafer, H (Accepted for publication) Substrate holder.

Walls, JM, Spencer, AG, Jafer, H, Waugh, AR, White, NH (Accepted for publication) Apparatus for coating substrates.

Walls, JM and Gibson, DR (Accepted for publication) Coating of optical substrates using closed field system.

Walls, JM, Gibson, DR, Patel, N, Young, W (Accepted for publication) Apparatus and method for the application of a material layer to display devices.

Walls, JM (Accepted for publication) Method and apparatus for forming a coated lens.

Walls, J and Kaminski, P (Accepted for publication) Cover sheet for photovoltaic panel.

Kaminski, PM, Law, AM, Wright, LD, Walls, JM (Accepted for publication) Cover sheet for photovoltaic panel.



Datasets

Newkirk, JM, Nayshevsky, I, Sinha, A, Law, AM, Xu, QF, To, B, Ndione, PF, Schelhas, LT, Walls, M, Lyons, AM, Miller, DC (2021) Supplementary information file for: Artificial linear brush abrasion of coatings for photovoltaic module first-surfaces, DOI: 10.17028/rd.lboro.13032689.

Goddard, P, Smith, R, Walls, M, Abbas, A, Fiducia, T, Watts, M, Hatton, P (2021) Data for the article: Chlorine activated stacking fault removal mechanism in thin film CdTe solar cells: the missing piece, DOI: 10.17028/rd.lboro.14842518.

Ulicna, S, Welch, L, Abbas, A, Togay, M, Tsai, V, Betts, T, Malkov, A, Walls, M, Bowers, J (2021) Supporting Information Files for Sodium doping of solution‐processed amine‐thiol based CIGS solar cells by thermal evaporation of NaCl, DOI: 10.17028/rd.lboro.15719631.



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