Loughborough University
Leicestershire, UK
LE11 3TU
+44 (0)1509 263171
Loughborough University

Loughborough University Research Publications

Publications for Long Seng To

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Journal Articles

Hodgkins, R, To, LS, Matthews, T (2024) The IPCC reports and HE Geography: opportunities lost and found, Journal of Geography in Higher Education, ISSN: 0309-8265. DOI: 10.1080/03098265.2024.2333293.

Mwale, VD, To, LS, Gogoda, C, Ngonda, T, Nkhoma, R (2024) Community resilience in Bondo community, Southern Malawi: balancing energy, water and biodiversity, International Journal of Energy Sector Management, ISSN: 1750-6220. DOI: 10.1108/ijesm-10-2023-0007.

Li, J, Foden, G, Chow, SKW, To, LS (2023) Integrating sustainable and energy-resilient strategies into emergency shelter design, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 191, 113968, ISSN: 1364-0321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2023.113968.

Cannone, C, Allington, L, Cervantes Barron, K, Charbonnier, F, Zachau Walker, M, Halloran, C, Yeganyan, R, Tan, N, Cullen, JM, Harrison, J, To, LS, Howells, M (2023) Designing a zero-order energy transition model: How to create a new Starter Data Kit, MethodsX, 10, pp.102120-102120, ISSN: 2215-0161. DOI: 10.1016/j.mex.2023.102120.

Gebreslassie, MG, Cuvilas, C, Zalengera, C, To, LS, Baptista, I, Robin, E, Bekele, G, Howe, L, Shenga, C, Macucule, DA, Kirshner, J, Mulugetta, Y, Power, M, Robinson, S, Jones, D, Broto, VC (2022) Delivering an off-grid transition to sustainable energy in Ethiopia and Mozambique, Energy, Sustainability and Society, 12, 23, ISSN: 2192-0567. DOI: 10.1186/s13705-022-00348-2.

Allington, L, Cannone, C, Pappis, I, Barron, KC, Usher, W, Pye, S, Brown, E, Howells, M, Walker, MZ, Ahsan, A, Charbonnier, F, Halloran, C, Hirmer, S, Cronin, J, Taliotis, C, Sundin, C, Sridharan, V, Ramos, E, Brinkerink, M, Deane, P, Gritsevskyi, A, Moura, G, Rouget, A, Wogan, D, Barcelona, E, Niet, T, Rogner, H, Bock, F, Quirós-Tortós, J, Angulo-Paniagua, J, Krishnamurthy, S, Harrison, J, To, LS (2022) Selected ‘Starter kit’ energy system modelling data for selected countries in Africa, East Asia, and South America (#CCG, 2021), Data in Brief, 42, 108021, ISSN: 2352-3409. DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2022.108021.

Wang, X, Reardon, L, To, LS (2022) Visualizing Nepal’s electricity supply resilience from a whole-systems perspective: A participatory approach, Energy Research & Social Science, 85, pp.102409-102409, ISSN: 2214-6296. DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2021.102409.

To, LS, Bruce, A, Munro, P, Santagata, E, MacGill, I, Rawali, M, Raturi, A (2021) A research and innovation agenda for energy resilience in Pacific Island Countries and Territories, Nature Energy, DOI: 10.1038/s41560-021-00935-1.

Zalengera, C, Chitawo, ML, Chitedze, I, To, LS, Mwale, V, Gondwe, KT, Maroyi, T (2021) Unbending the Winding Path of a Low-Income Country’s Energy Sector amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Perspectives from Malawi, Energies, 14(21), pp.7184-7184, DOI: 10.3390/en14217184.

Mujjuni, F, Betts, T, To, LS, Blanchard, R (2021) Resilience a means to development: A resilience assessment framework and a catalogue of indicators, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 152, 111684, ISSN: 1364-0321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2021.111684.

Bisaga, I and To, LS (2021) Funding and delivery models for modern energy cooking services in displacement settings: a review, Energies, 14(14), 4176, ISSN: 1996-1073. DOI: 10.3390/en14144176.

Bharadwaj, B, Pullar, D, To, LS, Leary, J (2021) Why firewood? Exploring the co-benefits, socio-ecological interactions and indigenous knowledge surrounding cooking practice in rural Nepal, Energy Research and Social Science, 75, 101932, ISSN: 2214-6296. DOI: 10.1016/j.erss.2021.101932.

Bisaga, I, Parikh, P, Tomei, J, To, LS (2021) Mapping synergies and trade-offs between energy and the sustainable development goals: A case study of off-grid solar energy in Rwanda, Energy Policy, 149, ISSN: 0301-4215. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2020.112028.

Ng, KS and To, LS (2020) A systems thinking approach to stimulating and enhancing resource efficiency and circularity in households, Journal of Cleaner Production, 275, 123038, ISSN: 0959-6526. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.123038.

Zalengera, C, To, LS, Sieff, R, Mohr, A, Eales, A, Cloke, J, Buckland, H, Brown, E, Blanchard, R, Batchelor, S (2020) Decentralisation: The key to accelerating access to distributed energy services in sub-Saharan Africa?, Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, ISSN: 2190-6483. DOI: 10.1007/s13412-020-00608-7.

Carrero, R, Acuto, M, Tzachor, A, Subedi, N, Campbell, B, To, LS (2019) Tacit networks, crucial care: Informal networks and disaster response in Nepal’s 2015 Gorkha earthquake, Urban Studies, pp.004209801881060-004209801881060, ISSN: 0042-0980. DOI: 10.1177/0042098018810606.

Brown, E, Campbell, B, Cloke, J, To, LS, Turner, B, Wray, A (2017) Low carbon energy and international development: from research impact to policymaking, Contemporary Social Science, ISSN: 2158-2041. DOI: 10.1080/21582041.2017.1417627.

To, LS, Seebaluck, V, Leach, M (2017) Future energy transition policy for sugarcane bagasse cogeneration: lessons from multi-level and policy innovations in Mauritius, Energy Research and Social Science, ISSN: 2214-6296.

Nerini, FF, Tomei, J, To, LS, Bisaga, I, Parikh, P, Black, M, Borrion, A, Spataru, C, Broto, VC, Anandarajah, G, Milligan, B, Mulugetta, Y (2017) Mapping synergies and trade-offs between energy and the sustainable development goals, Nature Energy, DOI: 10.1038/s41560-017-0036-5.

Broto, VC, Stevens, L, Ackom, E, Tomei, J, Parikh, P, Bisaga, I, To, LS, Kirshner, J, Mulugetta, Y (2017) A research agenda for a people-centred approach to energy access in the urbanising global south, Nature Energy, DOI: 10.1038/s41560-017-0007-x.

To, LS, Kwapata, K, Masala, L, Navarro, VA, Batchelor, S, Mulugetta, Y, Barnett, A, Karekezi, S (2017) Policy perspectives on expanding cogeneration from bagasse in Malawi, Journal of Energy in Southern Africa, 28(1), pp.45-53, ISSN: 1021-447X. DOI: 10.17159/2413-3051/2017/v28i1a1420.

Francisco, G, Harcourt, W, Farhar, BC, Osnes, B, Karve, P, To, LS, Speer, N, Sweetman, C (2012) Views, events, and debates, Gender & Development, 20, pp.607-621, ISSN: 1355-2074. DOI: 10.1080/13552074.2012.731759.


Wang, X, Singh, A, Reardon, L, To, LS (Accepted for publication) Energy Governance and Energy Resilience in the Context of Federal Restructuring in Nepal. In Energy and Climate Transformations: 3rd International Conference on Energy Research & Social Science, Manchester.

To, LS (2021) Applying the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for Resources to Solar Energy. In Asia Pacific Solar Research Conference, Sydney.

To, LS (2021) How community energy resilience can ensure economic development. In Zero Emissions Solutions Conference, Online.

To, LS, Bruce, A, MacGill, I, Munro, P, Raturi, A (2020) Energy resilience and disasters in the South Pacific: political economy dynamics, community responses and planning. In the Second Urban Resilience Asia Pacific Conference – URAP2, Online.

To, LS (2019) Community Energy Resilience. In Whole Systems Networking Fund: Final Conference, London.

To, LS (2019) Community energy resilience in the era of climate change. In Climate Urbanism: an international workshop on the changing relationship between cities and climate change, University of Sheffield.

To, LS (2019) Research collaborations on community energy resilience and electricity systems in Southern Africa. In Low Carbon Energy for Development Network Annual Conference, University of Strathclyde.

To, LS (2019) Enhancing community energy resilience using renewables. In Central Asian Research Forum, Loughborough University.

To, LS (2018) Community Energy resilience in low-income countries. In UKERC Annual Assembly 2018, University of Sheffield.

To, LS, Cloke, J, Mohr, A (2017) Low Carbon Energy for Development Network - Experiences with Humanitarian Energy. In RGS-IBG Annual International Conference, London.

To, LS, Kwapata, K, Kathabwalika, D, Mulugetta, Y, Leach, M, Karekezi, S, Barnett, A, Batchelor, S (2015) Policy Perspectives on Clean Energy and the Sugar Industry in Malawi. In International Conference on Energy, Environment and Climate Change, Mauritius.

To, LS, Karekezi, S, Barnett, A, Batchelor, S, Mulugetta, Y, Leach, M, Kwapata, K (2014) Agro-Industries and Clean Energy in Africa. In 4th Conference on Climate Change and Development in Africa, Morocco.

To, LS, Zahnd, A, Riek, R (2012) Enhancing Capacity for Solar Photovoltaics in Rural Nepal. In Fellows, C (ed) , World Renewable Energy Forum.

Basnet, S, To, LS, Bruce, A, Sproul, A (2008) UNSW PV Projects in Nepal. In , 3rd International Solar Energy Society Conference, Asia Pacific Region/ 43rd ANZSES Annual Conference.

To, LS (2008) Monitoring and Evaluation of PV Programs in Rural Areas in the Asia-Pacific Region. In , Proceedings of the 3rd International Solar Energy Society Conference, Asia Pacific Region/ 46th ANZSES Annual Conference.

To, LS (2007) Approaches to using renewable energy in rural areas of China. In , Proceedings of the International Solar Energy Society Solar World Congress 2007, pp.2925-2929.

To, LS, Watt, M, Stapleton, G (2006) Photovoltaics in Remote Indigenous Australian Communities: An Assessment of the Bushlight Community Energy Planning Model. In , Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress IX.


To, LS (2009) Solar Home System Basic Maintenance & Repair Training Workbook, Rural Integrated Development Service Nepal.


Vallecha, H and To, LS (2024) Community Energy and Community Resilience: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective. In V, CB (ed) Community Energy and Sustainable Energy Transitions Experiences from Ethiopia, Malawi and Mozambique, Springer Nature, pp.23-44, ISBN: 9783031579387.

Brown, E, Campbell, B, Cloke, J, Cook, J, Batchelor, S, To, LS (2022) Low carbon energy for development network (LCEDN). In Hantrais, L (ed) How to Manage International Multidisciplinary Research Projects, Edward Elgar, pp.137-149, ISBN: 9781802204711. DOI: 10.4337/9781802204728.00019.

Brown, E, Campbell, B, Cloke, J, Cook, J, Batchelor, S, To, LS (2022) Low carbon energy for development network (LCEDN). In How to Manage International Multidisciplinary Research Projects, pp.137-149, ISBN: 9781802204711.

Tomei, J and To, LS (2021) Access to energy: the contribution of the social sciences to delivering energy equity and justice. In Webb, J, Wade, F, Tingey, M (ed) Research Handbook on Energy and Society, Edward Elgar Publishing, pp.126-140, ISBN: 9781839100710.

To, LS (2020) Community energy resilience for a new climate urbanism. In Castán Broto, V, Robin, E, While, A (ed) Climate Urbanism: Towards a Critical Research Agenda, Palgrave Macmillan, pp.213-226, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-53386-1.

To, LS (2020) Community energy resilience for a new climate urbanism. In Climate Urbanism: Towards a Critical Research Agenda, pp.213-226, ISBN: 9783030533854. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-53386-1_13.

To, LS and Subedi, N (2019) Towards community energy resilience. In Grafham, O (ed) Energy Access and Forced Migration, Routledge, pp.83-93, ISBN: 9781138543386.

To, LS and Subedi, N (2019) Towards community energy resilience. In Energy Access and Forced Migration, pp.81-91, ISBN: 9781138543386. DOI: 10.4324/9781351006941-8.


Ogunna, C, Blanchard, R, To, LS (2022) Scaling energy resilience: A tool for leveraging local resources for adapting resilience innovations, Loughborough University Annual Research Conference.


Bisaga, I, Campbell, K, Bellanca, R, Kleijn, M, To, LS (2022) Clean and modern energy for cooking: A path to food security and sustainable development.

Bisaga, I and To, LS (2021) Clean cooking in refugee camps and COVID-19: what lessons can we learn?.

Tran, A, To, LS, Bisaga, I (2021) Landscape analysis of modern energy cooking in displacement settings.

Small, D, Nicholls, A, Jeffrey, T, Bruce, A, MacGill, I, Munro, P, Raturi, A, Rawali, M, To, LS (2020) Workshop background paper: Energy resilience in Pacific Island countries and territories.

Zalengera, C, Chitedze, I, To, LS, Chitawo, M, Mwale, V, Maroyi, T (2020) Impacts and coping mechanisms for the Covid-19 pandemic in Malawi’s energy sector, Energy and Economic Growth Programme.

Dvorakova, V, Hara, CM, Perrett, A, Reardon, L, To, LS, Trace, S, Wang, X (2020) Community energy resilience and electricity systems: workshops report, Low Carbon Energy for Development Network & Energy and Economic Growth Applied Research Programme.

Bagley, C, Brown, E, Campbell, B, Cloke, JMP, Cameron, S, Collings, S, Gunning, R, Kabell, H, McDonnell, J, To, LS, Turner, B (2018) Mapping the UK research & innovation landscape: Energy & development.

To, LS and Tarazona, M (2018) Developing a research agenda for community energy resilience in the electricity sector.

Leary, J, To, LS, Alsop, A (2018) Is there still a role for small wind in rural electrification programmes?.

Scott, A, Worrall, L, Hornberg, J, To, LS (2017) How solar household systems contribute to resilience.


To, LS (2015) Renewable Energy Projects in Rural China: A Systemic Capacity Approach.

To, LS (2005) PV in Remote Indigenous Australian Communities: An Assessment of the Bushlight Community Energy Planning Model.

Getting in touch

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Loughborough University
LE11 3TU
+44 (0)1509 222453