Loughborough University
Leicestershire, UK
LE11 3TU
+44 (0)1509 263171
Loughborough University

Loughborough University Research Publications


Publications for Richard Blanchard

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Journal Articles

Akinyele, D, Okakwu, I, Olabode, E, Blanchard, R, Ajewole, T, Monyei, C (2022) Integrated TEEP approach to microgrid design and planning with small hydro/solar/diesel resources for standalone application, e-Prime: Advances in Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Energy, 2, pp.1-15, DOI: 10.1016/j.prime.2022.100091.

Radu, T, Smedley, V, Yadav, D, Blanchard, R, Rahaman, SA, Salam, A, Visvanathan, C (2022) The design, development and assessment of a novel de-centralised IoT-based remote monitoring of a small-scale anaerobic digester network, Journal of Energy and Power Technology, 4(4), 039, ISSN: 2690-1692. DOI: 10.21926/jept.2204039.

Mukelabai, M, Wijayantha-Kahagala-Gamage, U, Blanchard, R (2022) Corrigendum to “Renewable hydrogen economy outlook in Africa” [Renew Sustain Energy Rev 167 (2022) 112705], Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 170, ISSN: 1364-0321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2022.112993.

Little, M and Blanchard, R (2022) Pre-feasibility methodology to compare productive uses of energy supplied by stand-alone solar photovoltaic systems: A Tanzanian case study, Energy for Sustainable Development: the journal of the international energy initiative, 70(2022), pp.497-510, ISSN: 0973-0826. DOI: 10.1016/j.esd.2022.08.018.

Mukelabai, M, Wijayantha-Kahagala-Gamage, U, Blanchard, R (2022) Hydrogen technology adoption analysis in Africa using a Doughnut-PESTLE hydrogen model (DPHM), International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 47(74), pp.31521-31540, ISSN: 0360-3199. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2022.07.076.

Mujjuni, F, Chivunga, JN, Betts, T, Lin, Z, Blanchard, R (2022) A comparative analysis of the impacts and resilience of the electricity supply industry against COVID-19 restrictions in the United Kingdom, Malawi, and Uganda, Sustainability, 14(15), 9481, DOI: 10.3390/su14159481.

Mukelabai, M, Wijayantha-Kahagala-Gamage, U, Blanchard, R (2022) Renewable hydrogen economy outlook in Africa, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 167, 112705, ISSN: 1364-0321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2022.112705.

Jaeger, A and Blanchard, R (2022) Techno-economic analysis of an enhanced anaerobic digester in the Andean area of Peru, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 13(2), pp.805-819, ISSN: 2008-9163. DOI: 10.1007/s40095-022-00473-w.

Palmer, D and Blanchard, R (2021) Evaluation of High-Resolution Satellite-Derived Solar Radiation Data for PV Performance Simulation in East Africa, Sustainability, 13, ISSN: 2071-1050. DOI: 10.3390/su132111852.

Mujjuni, F, Betts, T, To, LS, Blanchard, R (2021) Resilience a means to development: A resilience assessment framework and a catalogue of indicators, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 152, 111684, ISSN: 1364-0321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2021.111684.

Scott, A and Blanchard, R (2021) The role of anaerobic digestion in reducing dairy farm greenhouse gas emissions, Sustainability, 13(5), 2612, ISSN: 2071-1050. DOI: 10.3390/su13052612.

Zalengera, C, To, LS, Sieff, R, Mohr, A, Eales, A, Cloke, J, Buckland, H, Brown, E, Blanchard, R, Batchelor, S (2020) Decentralization: the key to accelerating access to distributed energy services in sub-Saharan Africa?, Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 10(3), pp.270-289, ISSN: 2190-6483. DOI: 10.1007/s13412-020-00608-7.

Izquierdo, J and Blanchard, R (2020) Solar desalination system design for irrigation/drinking water and electricity generation in desert or arid areas, Journal of Sustainability Research, 2(2), e200018, ISSN: 2632-6582. DOI: 10.20900/jsr20200018.

Phiri, E, Kasambara, A, Rowley, P, Blanchard, R (2020) Energy and water needs analysis: towards solar photovoltaic water pumping in rural areas of Malawi, Journal of Sustainability Research, 2(2), e200013, ISSN: 2632-6582. DOI: 10.20900/jsr20200013.

Zhang, L and Blanchard, R (2019) Optimizing the use of inedible maize in the design of an ethanol production plant in Heilongjiang, China, Energy and Power, 9(2), pp.39-47, ISSN: 2163-159X. DOI: 10.5923/j.ep.20190902.01.

Olatomiwa, L, Blanchard, R, Mekhilef, S, Akinyele, D (2018) Hybrid renewable energy supply for rural healthcare facilities: An approach to quality healthcare delivery, Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 30, pp.105-119, ISSN: 2213-1388. DOI: 10.1016/j.seta.2018.09.007.

Lukuyu, J, Blanchard, R, Rowley, P (2018) A risk-adjusted techno-economic analysis for renewable-based milk cooling in remote dairy farming communities in East Africa, Renewable Energy, ISSN: 0960-1481. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2018.06.101.

McLellan, JD and Blanchard, R (2018) Micro-generation in conflict: The conditions necessary to power economic development in rural Afghanistan, AIMS Energy, 6(2), pp.339-357, ISSN: 2333-8326. DOI: 10.3934/energy.2018.2.339.

Hamid, RG and Blanchard, R (2018) An assessment of biogas as a domestic energy source in rural Kenya: Developing a sustainable business model, Renewable Energy, ISSN: 0960-1481. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2018.01.032.

Narvaez-Cueva, RA, Blanchard, R, Dixon, R, Ramirez, V, Chulde, D (2018) Low-cost syngas shifting for remote gasifiers: Combination of CO2 adsorption and catalyst addition in a novel and simplified packed structure, Energies, ISSN: 1996-1073. DOI: 10.3390/en11020311.

Roche, OM and Blanchard, R (2017) Design of a solar energy centre for providing lighting and income-generating activities for off-grid rural communities in Kenya, Renewable Energy, 118, pp.684-694, ISSN: 0960-1481. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2017.11.053.

Ganguly, A, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD, Chatterjee, PK (2016) Optimization of process parameters for catalytic conversion of solid bio-waste during thermophilic anaerobic digestion, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 35, pp.763-770, ISSN: 1878-0296. DOI: 10.1016/j.proenv.2016.07.091.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Smedley, V, Theaker, H, Wheatley, AD (2015) Monitoring anaerobic digestion: a 2-year brewery case study, Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, 9(4), pp.207-213, ISSN: 1496-2551. DOI: 10.1680/jees.14.00008.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, L, Blanchard, R (2015) A case study of a hypothetical 100 MW OTEC plant analyzing the prospects of OTEC technology, OTEC Matters, 29(1), pp.98-129, ISSN: 1654-6520.

Taillon, J and Blanchard, R (2015) Exergy efficiency graphs for thermal power plants, Energy, ISSN: 0360-5442. DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2015.03.055.

Zalengera, C, Blanchard, R, Eames, P, Juma, AM, Chitawo, ML, Gondwe, KT (2014) Overview of the Malawi energy situation and A PESTLE analysis for sustainable development of renewable energy, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 38, pp.335-347, ISSN: 1364-0321. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.05.050.

Williams, S, Blanchard, R, Mohammed, A, Bliss, M, Pancholi, R, Clowes, MS, Whale, M (2014) The development of a remote laboratory for distance learning and its impact on student learning, Education Alternatives, 12, pp.366-373, ISSN: 1313-2571.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, L, Blanchard, RE (2013) An overview on green house gas emission characteristics and energy evaluation of ocean energy systems from life cycle assessment and energy accounting studies, Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences, 5(2), pp.535-540, ISSN: 0974-9411.

Navarez, R, Blanchard, RE, Mena, A (2013) Use of Rice Crops Waste for Energy Production in Ecuador, Energy and Power, 3(3), pp.27-36, ISSN: 2163-159X. DOI: 10.5923/j.ep.20130303.01.

Aldonza, K and Blanchard, RE (2012) Optimizing the Use of Musa spp. Waste in the Design of an Ethanol Production Plant, Energy and Power, 2(5), pp.81-88, ISSN: 2163-159X. DOI: 10.5923/j.ep.20120205.01.

Staffell, I, Baker, P, Barton, JP, Bergman, N, Blanchard, RE, Brandon, NP, Brett, DJL, Hawkes, A, Infield, DG, Jardine, CN, Kelly, N, Leach, M, Matian, M, Peacock, AD, Sudtharalingham, S, Woodman, B (2010) UK Microgeneration. Part II: Technology Overviews, Proceedings of Institute of Civil Engineers, Energy, 163(4), pp.143-165, ISSN: 1751-4223. DOI: 10.1680/ener.2010.163.4.143.

Bergman, N, Hawkes, A, Brett, DJL, Baker, P, Barton, JP, Blanchard, RE, Brandon, NP, Infield, D, Jardine, C, Kelly, N, Leach, M, Matian, M, Peacock, AD, Staffell, I, Sudtharalingam, S, Woodman, B (2009) UK microgeneration. Part 1: policy and behavioural aspects, Proceedings of Institute of Civil Engineers, Energy, 162(1), pp.23-36, ISSN: 1751-4223. DOI: 10.1680/ener.2009.162.1.23.

Chasapis, D, Drosou, V, Papamechael, I, Aidonis, A, Blanchard, RE (2008) Monitoring and operational results of a hybrid solar-biomass heating system, Renewable Energy, 33(8), pp.1759-1767, ISSN: 0960-1481. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2007.11.003.

Abdulwahed, M, Nagy, ZK, Blanchard, RE (2008) Constructivist Project Based Learning Design, a Cybernetics Approach, Journal of Education, Information and Cybernetics, 1(2), pp.1-8, ISSN: 1943-7978.



Conferences

Chivunga, J, Lin, Z, Blanchard, R (2022) Energy policy as a tool for promoting power system resilience: Malawi's challenges and potential solutions [Abstract]. In The 3rd International Conference on Energy and Sustainable Futures (ICESF), Coventry, UK.

Mujjuni, F, Betts, T, Blanchard, R (2022) Application of observational weather data in evaluating resilience of power systems and adaptation to extreme wind events [Abstract]. In The 3rd International Conference on Energy and Sustainable Development (ICESF), Coventry University, UK.

Mbewe, C, Blanchard, R, Claudio, G, Bliss, M, Monk, N, Barton, J (2022) Promoting battery testing in developing countries through development of a low-cost battery test system. In 2021 IEEE International Humanitarian Technology Conference (IHTC); 2021 IEEE International Humanitarian Technology Conference (IHTC), Virtual,ISBN: 9781665449250. DOI: 10.1109/IHTC53077.2021.9698932.

Barton, J, Bliss, M, Little, M, Mbewe, C, Monk, N, Palmer, D, Blanchard, R (2022) A portable power station for humanitarian contexts. In 2021 IEEE International Humanitarian Technology Conference (IHTC); 2021 IEEE International Humanitarian Technology Conference (IHTC), Virtual,ISBN: 9781665449250. DOI: 10.1109/IHTC53077.2021.9698942.

Mujjuni, F, Blanchard, R, Betts, T (2021) A case for a new approach in theorizing and operationalisation of resilience for electrical systems in developing countries. In Bhattacharyya, S (ed) Aligning Local Interventions with the UN Sustainable Developments Goals (SDGs); Proceedings of the Virtual International Conference on Aligning Local Interventions with the UN Sustainable Development Goals, Conference, Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK, pp.168-191.

Palmer, D and Blanchard, R (Accepted for publication) Selection of satellite-derived high-resolution solar radiation datasets for PV Performance Simulation in East Africa. In Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (PVRW) 2021; PVRW 2021 Proceedings, Online.

Blanchard, R (2020) Global warming, the role of renewable energy and the case for modernising cooking. In 1st International Conference on Recent Trends in Developments of Thermo-fluids and Renewable Energy (TFRE-2020), Online.

Mbewe, C, Kottantharayil, A, Doolla, S, Blanchard, R (2020) Examining technical and non-technical challenges on performance and longevity of batteries for micro and nano-grids [Abstract]. In 3rd UK-India Joint Virtual Clean Energy Centre (JVCEC), Virtual.

Alarbi, AAA, Blanchard, R, Strickland, D (2020) Minimising the electricity interruptions using artificial intelligence and demand side management approach to achieve sustainable development goals. In Bhattacharyya, S (ed) Virtual International Conference on Aligning Local Interventions with the UN Sustainable Development Goals, Conference; Proceedings of the Virtual International Conference on Aligning Local Interventions with the UN Sustainable Development Goals, Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK, pp.192-211, ISBN: 9781857214604.

Yadudu, M, Rowley, P, Blanchard, R (2020) The potential of implementing renewable energy in power distribution and agriculture on achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): A baseline study of Northern Nigeria. In Bhattacharyya, S (ed) Proceedings of the Virtual International Conference on Aligning Local Interventions with the UN Sustainable Development Goals,; Proceedings of the Virtual International Conference on Aligning Local Interventions with the UN Sustainable Development Goals, Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK, pp.231-254, ISBN: 9781857214604.

Alarbi, AAA, Strickland, D, Blanchard, R (2020) AI concepts for Demand Side Shedding Management in Libya. In 8th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA 2019); 2019 8th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA), Brasov, Romania, pp.505-510, ISBN: 9781728135878. DOI: 10.1109/ICRERA47325.2019.8996642.

Olatomiwa, L, Blanchard, R, Uligwe, J (2019) Demand side management strategies for solar-PV penetration in powering rural healthcare centre in Africa. In , Oxford, UK.

Olatomiwa, L and Blanchard, R (2019) Maximizing the penetration levels of hybrid renewable energy systems in rural areas with demand side management approaches in achieving SDGs. In International Conference on Energising the SDGs through appropriate technology and governance, DeMontfort University, Leicester, UK.

Mahmud, AM, Rahman, MQA, Blanchard, R (2018) Energy consumption coefficient (ECC) for optimum solar PV-diesel hybrid system design. In 5th International Conference on Developments in Renewable Energy Technology, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Yepthomi, A, Blanchard, R, Pearsall, N, Demeleus, G, Nyathi, S (2018) Techno-economic analysis of hybrid-PV systems in UNDP country office. In 5th International Conference of Developments in Renewable Energy Technology, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Chiarasumran, N, Blanchard, R, Benyahia, B (2018) A comparative life cycle assessment approach of 5 alternative technologies for converting municipal solid waste (MSW) into chemicals and electricity in the UK. In 6th International Congress on Green Process Engineering, Toulouse, France.

Radu, T, Yadav, D, Blanchard, R (2018) Interpretation of biogas production from potential biomass feedstock and synthetic cellulose through analytical techniques [Powerpoint]. In The 2nd International Conference on Anaerobic Digestion and technology, Chang Mai, Thailand.

Wu, Y, Xia, Q, Blanchard, R (2018) Parameters extraction of single diode model of photovoltaic cell using improved firefly algorithm. In SET2018 - 17th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, Wuhan, China.

Osman, S, Wu, Y, Blanchard, R (2018) An economically viable PV hybrid micro-grid model for remote villages in developing countries. In SET2018. The 17th International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, Wuhan, China.

Blanchard, R and Radu, T (2018) Energy recovery from biogas [Powerpoint]. In , Royal Armouries, Leeds.

Chiarasumran, N, Blanchard, R, Benyahia, B (2017) Model reliability and parameter estimability of gasification dynamic models. In , Barcelona, Spain.

Fox, S and Blanchard, R (2017) Cost benefit analyses for small scale biogas systems development in Ethiopia [Abstract]. In International Bioenergy Conference, Manchester, UK.

Radu, T, Smedley, V, Blanchard, R (2017) Towards decentralized biogas generation: building community scale biogas reactors. In 40th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough, UK.

Blanchard, R and Radu, T (2017) Opportunities for biogas production from sewage collection in Nakuru, Kenya. In IWA World Conference on Anaerobic Digestion, Beijing, China.

Blanchard, R, Buflasa, HMA, Munu, I, Radu, T, Thomson, M (2017) An evaluation of waste management for energy recovery for the Kingdom of Bahrain. In International Conference of Solid Waste Management IconSWM 2017, Hyderabad, India.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Taylor, J, Wheatley, AD (2017) Novel monitoring of AD process using low cost sensing platforms. In International Conference Progress in Biogas IV, Stuttgart, Germany.

Chiarasumran, N, Blanchard, R, Benyahia, B (2017) Towards more accurate and reliable mathematical model for steam gasification [Abstract]. In .

Narvaez-Cueva, RA, Blanchard, R, Chulde, D, Guerron, G, Dixon, R (2017) Dynamic modelling of updraft gasifiers: Incidence of feedstock quality and operational variables in the transient model structure. In Dynamic Systems and Control Conference, Tysons, Virginia, USA.

Mahmud, AM and Blanchard, R (2016) Assessing a rural electrification program in Malaysia: system performance analysis on 11 solar PV-diesel hybrid systems. In International Conference on Development in Renewable Energy Technology 2016, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DOI: 10.1109/ICDRET.2016.7421506.

Blanchard, R and Little, M (2016) Developing an open access monitoring device for off grid renewables. In International Conference on Developments in Renewable Energy Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DOI: 10.1109/ICDRET.2016.7421511.

Blanchard, R, Brown, E, Clements, A, Cloke, J, McCulloch, M, Mohr, A (2016) Bringing economic development and light to those not on the bottom rung of the ladder [abstract]. In AAG 2016 Annual Meeting, San Francisco.

Blanchard, R, Radu, T, Wheatley, AD (2016) Impact of biodegradable plastic bags residues on anaerobic digestion [Poster]. In EUBCE 2016 24th European Biomass Conference &Exhibition, Amsterdam.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Smedley, V, Wheatley, AD, Salam, A, Visvanathan, C (2016) Community scale, decentralised anaerobic digestion for energy and resource recovery. In 2016 International Conference on Cogeneration, Small Power Plants and District Energy (ICUE 2016), Bang-Na, Thailand. DOI: 10.1109/COGEN.2016.7728947.

Williams, S, Blanchard, R, Mohamed, A, Bliss, M, Pancholi, R, Clowes, MS, Whale, M (2016) Student experiences with a remote laboratory and the potential for capacity building in developing countries. In 17th World Renewable Energy Congress, Bahrain.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD (2016) Towards digestible plastics: The impact of plastic bin liners on anaerobic digestion performance. In The Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Association's (ADBA) annual trade show and conference, Birmingham, UK.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD (2016) Renewable energy research at Loughborough University. In SUPERGEN Researchers day, Glasgow, UK.

Mahmud, AM, Blanchard, RE, Gottschalg, R (2015) Impact Study on Rural Electrification Program Using Solar PV-Diesel Hybrid System for Rural Schools in Sabah, Malaysia. In 4th Symposium Small Solar PV Application: Rural Electrification and Commercial Use, International Congress Centre Munich, Germany.

Blanchard, RE, Radu, T, Collins, F, Diamond, D, Wheatley, A (2015) Real-time autonomous remote biogas monitoring: Anaerobic Digestion at Loughborough University. In Bioenergy: an engine for economic growth in the global south workshop, Wellcome Trust, London.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD, Collins, F, Diamond, D (2015) Real-time autonomous remote monitoring of biogas for rural communities in developing countries. In Bioenergy: an engine for economic growth in the global south workshop,, Welcome Trust, London.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD (2015) Anaerobic digestion of brewery waste. In ADBA Research Forum, Southampton, UK.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD (2015) The impact of plastic bag residues on anaerobic digestion performance. In ADNet Early Career Researcher Conference, Warwick.

Narvaez-Cueva, RA, Chico-Proano, A, Chulde, D, Blanchard, R, Dixon, R (2015) Syngas composition in atmospheric pressure gasifiers after a catalytic treatment. In Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource Constrained World. Biomass 2015, Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany,ISBN: 9783319445304.

Blanchard, R, Bhattacharya, SC, Chowdhury, M, Chowdhury, B, Biswas, K, Choudhury, BK (2015) A review of biofuels in India: challenges and opportunities. In World Energy Engineering Congress 2015, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Roy, B, Ghosh, P, Ganguly, A, Blanchard, R, Chatterjee, PK, Halder, G (2015) Synthesis of biomethane from obnoxious weed parthenium hysterophorous using biocatalyst in semi-batch anaerobic digester. In Golden Jubilee International Conference on Recent Developments in Chemical and Biological Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur, India.

Phiri, E, Rowley, P, Blanchard, R (2015) The feasibility of solar water-pumping in a rural village of Malawi. In First International Conference on Solar Energy Solutions for Electricity and Water Supply in Rural Areas, Cairo, Egypt.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD, Taylor, J (2015) Real-time autonomous remote monitoring of AD. In SUPERGEN Bioenergy Hub Annual Assembly 2015, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden.

Ganguly, A, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD, Chatterjee, PK (2015) Optimization of process parameters for catalytic conversion of solid bio-waste during thermophilic anaerobic digestion. In 5th International Conference on Sustainable Waste Management, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

Anvari-Azar, F, Blanchard, R, Rowley, P (2015) Considering cogeneration and thermal storage within UK community context [Poster]. In , University of Birmingham.

Eze, OF, Blanchard, RE, Wheatley, AD (2014) An investigation into the potential for improving anaerobic digestion process using solar thermal enhancement. In 5th International Symposium on Energy from Biomass and Waste, Venice, Italy, pp.1-11.

Zalengera, C, Blanchard, RE, Eames, PC (2014) Investigating the Feasibility of Solar Photovoltaic and Wind Electricity Integration for Likoma Island in Malawi: Techno-economic Analysis Applying the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER). In World Renewable Energy Congress XIII, University of Kingston, London, pp.1-7.

Rahman, MM, Ahiduzzaman, M, Sadrul Islam, AKM, Blanchard, R (2014) Karoch (Pongamia Pinnata)- An alternative source of biofuel in Bangladesh. In , Proceedings of 2014 3rd International Conference on the Developments in Renewable Energy Technology, ICDRET 2014,ISBN: 9789843378675. DOI: 10.1109/icdret.2014.6861659.

Williams, SR, Blanchard, RE, Mohammed, A, Bliss, M, Pancholi, R, Clowes, M (2014) The Development of a remote laboratory for distance learning at Loughborough University. In HEA Annual Conference 2014, Aston, UK, pp.1-1.

Taillon, J and Blanchard, RE (2014) Simplified Exergy Efficiency Graphs for Thermal Power Plants. In THE 27TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EFFICIENCY, COST, OPTIMIZATION, SIMULATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF ENERGY SYSTEMS, PROCEEDINGS OF ECOS 2014, Turku, Finland, pp.1-17.

Zalengera, C, Blanchard, RE, Eames, PC (2014) Putting the End-user First: Towards Addressing the Contesting Values in Renewable Energy Systems Deployment for Low Income Households - A Case of Likoma Island in Malawi. In UNESCO Chair in Technologies for Development: What is Essential?, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp.1-7.

Rahman, MM, Ahiduzzaman, M, Sadrul Islam, AKM, Blanchard, RE (2014) Karoch (Pongamia pinnata)- An alternative source of biofuel in Bangladesh. In 3rd International Conference on the Developments in Renewable Energy Technology (ICDRET), Uniter International University, Bangladesh, pp.1-8.

Blanchard, RE and Pollard, AM (2014) A Hybrid Biogas System for Kolkata. In 1st International Conference on Non Conventional Energy, JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani, India, pp.1-6.

Radu, T, Blanchard, RE, Smedley, V, Theaker, H, Wheatley, A (2014) Operational Experiences of Industrial Scale AD: Lessons for the Future. In 1st International Conference on Non Conventional Energy, JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani, India, pp.1-5.

Blanchard, RE, Williams, SR, Bliss, M, Clowes, M, Mohammed, A, Pancholi, R (2014) Educating the World: A Remote Experiment in Photovoltaics. In 1st International Conference on Non Conventional Energy, JIS College of Engineering, Kalyani, India, pp.1-5.

Radu, T, Smedley, V, Wheatley, AD, Blanchard, RE, Liddell-Young, N (2014) Impact of Feedstock solids concentration on the design and operation of anaerobic digestion. In International Bioenergy 2014 Conference, Manchester Central Convention Complex, Manchester, UK, pp.1-10.

Pollard, AM and Blanchard, RE (2014) A hybrid biogas system for Kolkata. In 2014 1st International Conference on Non Conventional Energy (ICONCE), 2014 1st International Conference on Non Conventional Energy (ICONCE 2014). DOI: 10.1109/iconce.2014.6808701.

Radu, T, Smedley, V, Wheatley, AD, Blanchard, R, Theaker, H (2014) Operational experiences of industrial scale AD: lessons for the future. In Proceedings of 2014 1st International Conference on Non Conventional Energy: Search for Clean and Safe Energy, ICONCE 2014, pp.131-135, ISBN: 9781479933402. DOI: 10.1109/ICONCE.2014.6808705.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD, Yadav, D, Bora, D, Purkayastha, R, Ghatak, M, Barbora, L, Mahanta, P, Collins, F, Diamond, D (2014) Providing energy for rural Indian communities: anaerobic digestion at Loughborough University. In , Birmingham, pp.1-1.

Blanchard, R, Williams, S, Bliss, M, Clowes, MS, Mohammed, A, Pancholi, R (2014) The development of a photovoltaic remotely operated laboratory experiment: a contribution to meeting the challenge of the renewable energy skills shortage. In World Renewable Energy Congress XIII, University of Kingston, London, pp.1-7.

Yadav, D, Bora, D, Purkayastha, R, Ghatak, M, Barbora, L, Mahanta, P, Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD (2014) Small-scale anaerobic digestion: a case study. In 37th WEDC International Conference: Sustainable Water and Sanitation Services for All in a Fast Changing World, Hanoi, Vietnam, pp.1-1, ISBN: 9786048213374.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Smedley, V, Theaker, H, Wheatley, AD (2014) Anaerobic digestion of brewery effluent: two-year operating experiences. In IWA World Water Congress, Lisbon, Portugal, pp.1-1.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD, Collins, F, Diamond, D (2014) Real-time autonomous remote biogas monitoring: anaerobic digestion at Loughborough University. In WWEM 2014 6th International Conference and Exhibition on Water, Waste and Environmental Monitoring, Telford, UK, pp.1-1.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Smedley, V, Wheatley, AD (2014) Industrial scale anaerobic digestion of brewery effluent. In Short Retention Time Anaerobic Digestion Processes for Industrial Wastewater Treatment – Past, Present and Future, Newcastle, UK.

Radu, T, Smedley, V, Blanchard, RE, Wheatley, AD (2014) Industrial scale anaerobic digestion of brewery waste: Marmite-Unilever three-year case study. In The Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Association's (ADBA) fifth annual trade show and conference, Birmingham, UK.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD (2014) Anaerobic digestion at Loughborough University. In The Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Association's (ADBA) fifth annual trade show and conference, Birmingham, UK.

Taillon, J and Blanchard, RE (2013) Simplified Performance Exergy Analysis Tools for Thermal Power Plants. In Bioenergy 2013, Jyvaskyla, Finland, pp.270-282.

Taillon, J and Blanchard, RE (2013) Simplified Performance exergy analysis tools for thermal power plants. In 3rd International Exergy, Life Cycle Assessment, and Sustainability Workshop & Symposium (ELCAS3), Nisyros, Greece, pp.1-14.

Taillon, J and Blanchard, RE (2013) Exergy analysis of biomass cogeneration systems based on gasification and combustion. In 3rd International Exergy, Life Cycle Assessment, and Sustainability Workshop & Symposium (ELCAS3), Nisyros, Greece, pp.1-14.

Williams, SR, Blanchard, RE, Mohammed, A, Bliss, M, Pancholi, R, Clowes, M (2013) The Development of a Remote Laboratory For Distance Learning at Loughborough University. In EDULEARN13, EDULEARN13 Proceedings, Barcelona, Spain, pp.4342-4349, ISBN: 978-84-616-3822-2.

Radu, T, Wheatley, AD, Blanchard, RE (2013) Anaerobic co-digestion of maize and sewage sludge: providing energy for rural communities in India. In 13th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion: Recovering (bio)Resources for the World, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, pp.1-1.

Zalengera, C, Blanchard, RE, Eames, PC (2013) Understanding People's Purchasing-Power for Energy: How is it Important for Sustainable Development of Renewable Energy Technologies? - A Case of Likoma Island in Malawi. In 3rd Low Carbon Energy for Development Network Workshop, Wellcome Trust, London, pp.1-1.

Blanchard, RE (2013) Waste to Energy: A review of the State of Play in Europe. In BIT's 3rd Annual World Congress of Bioenergy-2013, Jingling Convention Center, Nanjing, China, pp.529-529.

Radu, T, Blanchard, RE, Smedley, V, Theaker, H, Wheatley, AD (2013) Anaerobic Digestion of Brewery Effluent- 2 Year Operating Experiences and Key Effects on Performance. In BIT's 3rd Annual World Bioenergy Congress-2013, Jingling Convention Center, Nanjing, China, pp.570-570.

Zalengera, C, Blanchard, RE, Eames, PC (2013) Developing a Renewable Energy System for Likoma Island in Malawi. In School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering Research Conference 2013, Loughborough University, pp.1-1.

Radu, T, Wheatley, AD, Blanchard, RE (2013) Providing energy for rural Indian communities: Anaerobic digestion at Loughborough University. In Research That Matters Conference 2013, Loughborough University, pp.1-1.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, L, Blanchard, R, Choudhury, BK (2012) Scope of cost reduction of ocean energy systems. In , World Energy Engineering Congress 2012, WEEC 2012, pp.655-674, ISBN: 9781622764877.

Zalengera, C, Blanchard, RE, Eames, PC (2012) Sustainable Livelihood Approach to Renewable Energy Technology Development- Experiences from Malawi. In 2012 EPFL - UNESCO Chair International Conference on Technologies for Development, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp.1-8.

Zalengera, C, Blanchard, RE, Eames, PC (2012) Leaning the Ladder for Human Socioeconomic Development on Better Walls: Sustainability Options and Opportunities for Developing Countries. In Planet Under Pressure, London International Convention Centre, London, pp.1-1.

Zalengera, C, Blanchard, RE, Eames, PC (2012) Understanding the Priorities of Poor Communities in Developing Countries: A way to Development of Sustainable Renewable Energy Systems. In School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering Research Conference, Loughborough University, pp.1-1.

Blanchard, RE and Williams, S (2012) Innovation in Distance Learning to Encourage Student Engagement in an Engineering Master of Science Programme. In Education Science Innovations 2012, Pernik. Bulgaria, pp.1-6.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, L, Blanchard, RE, Choudhury, BK (2012) Scope of cost reduction of Ocean Energy systems. In World Energy Engineering Congress, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, pp.1-20.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD (2012) Anaerobic digestion at Loughborough University. In The Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Association's (ADBA) third annual trade show and conference, Birmingham, UK.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, L, Blanchard, RE (2011) Prospects of Ocean Energy Systems for Sustainable Development. In Low Carbon Earth Summit, Dalian World expo Center, China.

Begum, M, Williams, SR, Blanchard, RE (2010) Improving the Quality of Learning Experience Through Continuous Evaluation and Innovation. In EDLEARN10, EDULEARN10 Proceedings, Barcelona, Spain, pp.1-11, ISBN: 978 84 613 9386 2.

Begum, M, Williams, SR, Blanchard, RE (2010) Improving the Quality of Learning Experience Through Continuous Evaluation and Innovation. In EDULEARN10 - International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies, EDULEARN 10 Proceedings, Barcelona, Spain, pp.1-11, ISBN: 978 84 613 9386 2.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, L, Blanchard, RE, Choudhury, BK (2009) Comparative study of wave energy, OTEC and tidal schemes. In 3rd Annual International Conference on Management &Social Welfare, Kolkata, pp.1-18.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, L, Blanchard, RE, Choudhury, B (2009) Assessment of Tidal Power. In Proceedings of 32nd World Energy Engineering Congress, Washington Convention Center, Washington DC, pp.1-11.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, L, Blanchard, RE, Choudhury, B (2009) Assessment of Tidal Power. In 32nd World Energy Engineering Congress, Proceedings of 32nd World Energy Engineering Congress, Washington DC, USA, pp.1-11.

Staffell, I, Baker, P, Barton, JP, Bergman, N, Blanchard, RE, Brandon, N, Brett, D, Hawkes, A, Infield, D, Jardine, C, Kelly, N, Leach, M (2009) Microgeneration from Renewable and Non-Renewable Sources. In Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Envrionmental Science, University of Copenhagen, p. 1.

Bergman, N, Barton, JP, Blanchard, RE, Brandon, N, Brett, D, Hawkes, A, Jardine, C, Kelly, N, Leach, M, Peacock, A, Staffel, I, Woodman, B (2009) Maximising Energy Savings from Domestic Microgeneration: a Cultural and Behavioural Analysis. In Climate Change: Global Risks, Challenges and Decisions, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, University of Copenhagen, p. 1.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, L, Blanchard, R, Choudhury, BK (2008) Assessment of tidal power. In , World Energy Engineering Congress 2009, WEEC 2009, pp.447-492, ISBN: 9781615677351.

Tourancheau, B, Krauss, G, Blanchard, RE (2008) Optimisation parametrique de I'ECS solaire et de la repartition des panneaux thermiques et PV pour une maison a bilan energie positif. In Conference IBPSA France 2008, Lyon, pp.1-8.

Abdulwahed, M, Nagy, ZK, Blanchard, R (2008) Using feedback control engineering for analyzing and designing an effective lecturing model. In 2008 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2008 38th Annual Frontiers in Education Conference. DOI: 10.1109/fie.2008.4720410.

Abdulwahed, M, Nagy, ZK, Blanchard, RE (2008) The TriLaba Novel View of Laboratory Education. In Centre, ES (ed) EE2008 Conference Proceedings, Loughborough, Leics UK, not known, ISBN: 978-1-904804-65-9.

Abdulwahed, M, Nagy, ZK, Blanchard, RE (2008) Using Hybrid Feedback Control Engineering for Designing Effective Project Based Learning Model. In Vaarady, DG (ed) Proceedings of ICEE 2008, New Challenges in Engineering Education, Budapest, Hungary, not known.

Duckers, L and Blanchard, RE (2008) A Virtual Hydroelectric Laboratory. In 10th World Renewable Energy Congress - WREC X, Glasgow, pp.1-1, ISBN: 9780080568973.

Abdulwahed, M, Nagy, ZK, Blanchard, RE (2008) Using Feedback Control Engineering for Analysing and Designing Effective Lecturing Model. In Proceedings of the 38th Annual Frontiers in Education (FIE 2008) Conference, Racing Toward Innovation in Engineering Education, Saratoga Springs, New York, USA,ISBN: 978-1-4244-1969-2.

Nagy, ZK, Abdulwahed, M, Blanchard, RE, Lindsay, E, Read, L (2008) The Impact of Remote and Virtual Laboratories in Engineering Education: A Workshop. In Proceedings of the Engineering Education (EE2008), International Conference on Innovation, Good Practice and Research in Engineering Education, Engineering Subject Centre, Loughborough, Leics, W011, ISBN: 978-1-904804-65-9.

Abdulwahed, M, Nagy, ZK, Blanchard, RE (2008) Beyond the Classroom Walls: Remote Labs, Authentic Experimentation with Theory Lectures. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Engineering Education (Aaee 2008), to Industry and Beyond, Yeppoon, Australia, W1A2.

Abdulwahed, M, Nagy, ZK, Blanchard, RE (2008) Beyond the Engineering Pedagogy: Engineering the Pedagogy, Modelling Kolb's Learning Cycle. In Proceedings of The Nineteenth Annual Conference of The Australian Association For Engineering Education (Aaee 2008), to Industry and Beyond, Yeppoon, Australia, M2A3.

Abdulwahed, M, Nagy, ZK, Blanchard, RE (2008) Constructivist project based learning design, a cybernetics approach. In Malpica, F, Tremante, A, Welsch, F, Voss, A, Shulz, MPR (ed) Proceedings of the 2nd International Multi-Conference on Society, Cybernetics and Informatics, (IMSCI 2008), Orlando, Florida, USA, pp.119-126, ISBN: 978-1-934272-47-3.

Abdulwahed, M, Nagy, ZK, Blanchard, RE (2008) Architecture of Mobile Formative Assessment System (m-FAS) for Enhancing Students Learning. In Malpica, F, Tremante, A, Welsch, F, Voss, A, Shulz, MPR (ed) Proceedings of the 2nd International Multi-Conference on Society, Cybernetics and Informatics, (IMSCI 2008), Orlando, Florida, USA, pp.21-25, ISBN: 978-1-934272-47-3.

Abdulwahed, M, Nagy, ZK, Blanchard, RE (2008) Beyond The Engineering Pedagogy: Engineering The Pedagogy, The Game of Experiential Learning. In Proceedings of The Nineteenth Annual Conference of The Australian Association For Engineering Education (Aaee 2008), to Industry and Beyond, Yeppoon, Australia, M2A1.

Abdulwahed, M, Nagy, Z, Blanchard, R (2008) Using feedback control engineering for analyzing and designing an effective lecturing model. In ,ISBN: 9781424419692. DOI: 10.1109/FIE.2008.4720410.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, LJ, Blanchard, RE, Choudhury, BK (2006) Life Cycle Analysis of Selected Solar and Wave Energy Systems. In National Conference on Advances in Energy Research, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, pp.1-7.

Blanchard, RE, Moron Garcia, SD, Bates, MR (2006) Converting the physical to the virtual: providing a laboratory experience for distance learners in engineering. In m-ICTE2006, The IV International Conference on Multimedia and Information and Communiction Technologies in Education 2006, Seville, Spain, p.1208, ISBN: 84-690-2472-8.

Blanchard, RE, Moron Garcia, SD, Bates, MR (2006) Converting the Physical to the Virtual: Providing a Laboratory Experience for Distance Learners in Engineering. In IV International Conference on Multimedia and ICTs in Education, Current Developments in Technology-Assisted Education 2006, Seville, Spain, pp.1-5.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, LJ, Blanchard, RE (2006) Development of an Assessment Tool for Wave Energy Systems. In World Renewable Energy Conference IX, Florence, Italy, pp.1-6.

Blanchard, RE (2005) The Use of Internet Tools for Effective Pedagogic Management of Participatory Distance Learning. In Proceedings of 3rd Annual Hawaii International Conference on Education, Honolulu, Hawaii, pp.1-11.

Blanchard, RE (1995) The Social Effects of Wind Energy in the UK: A Case Study in the Principality of Wales. In Wind Power 1995, Proceedings of the American Wind Energy Association, Washington DC, USA, pp.235-244.



Chapters

Blanchard, R, Albuflasa, H, Musa, I, Radu, T, Thomson, M (2019) An Evaluation of Waste Management for Energy Recovery for Bahrain. In Sustainable Waste Management: Policies and Case Studies 7th IconSWM—ISWMAW 2017, Springer, pp.247-261, ISBN: 9789811370700. DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-7071-7_22.

Ganguly, A, Banerjee, P, Bala, E, Blanchard, RE, Chaterjee, P (2017) Production of Ethanol from waste Potato using locally available Biocatalyst. In Ghosh, S (ed) Utilisation and Management of Bioresources, Springer, pp.143-151, ISBN: 978-9811053481.

Radu, T, Blanchard, R, Wheatley, AD (2017) Biogas for sustainable rural communities: case studies. In Sustainable Energy in Kazakhstan: Moving to Cleaner Energy in a Resource-Rich Country, © Routledge, pp.189-209, ISBN: 9781138238442.

Blanchard, RE and Williams, SR (2015) Experiences with a Remote Photovoltaic Laboratory. In Remenyi, D (ed) The e-Learning Excellence Awards 2015: An Anthology of Case Histories, pp.1-16, ISBN: 9781910810699.

Zalengera, C, Blanchard, RE, Eames, PC (2015) Putting the End-User First: Towards Addressing Contesting Values in Renewable Energy Systems Deployment for Low-Income Households—A Case from Likoma Island, Malawi. In Sustainable Access to Energy in the Global South Essential Technologies and Implementation Approaches, Springer, pp.101-112, ISBN: 9783319202099.

Blanchard, RE (2015) Biomass Heating. In Staffell, I, Brett, D, Brandon, N, Hawkes, A (ed) Domestic Microgeneration Renewable and Distributed Energy Technologies, Policies and Economics, Routledge, pp.77-101, ISBN: 9780415810418.

Blanchard, RE and Williams, SR (2013) The development of a remote laboratory for distance learning at Loughborough University. In Gibbins, L and Perkin, G (ed) Laboratories for the 21st Century in STEM Higher Education: A compendium of current UK practice and an insight into future directions for laboratory-based teaching and learning, pp.113-113, ISBN: 978 1 907632 17 4.

Blanchard, RE and Williams, SR (2012) Using innovations effectively in a distance learning programme – Case Study at Loughborough University, United Kingdom. In Rasul, M (ed) Developments in Engineering Education Standards, Information Science Reference, pp.1-21, ISBN: 9781466609518.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, LJ, Blanchard, RE, Choudhury, BK (2011) Ocean Energy Systems: Economy Evaluation. In Encyclopaedia of Energy Engineering, Taylor & Francis, pp.1-8, ISBN: 978 0 8493 3896 0.

Banerjee, S, Duckers, LJ, Blanchard, RE, Choudhury, BK (2011) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): By-product Availability. In Encyclopaedia of Energy Engineering, Taylor & Francis, pp.1-10, ISBN: 978 0 8493 3896 0.

Blanchard, RE (2010) Postgraduate Distance Learning. In Sustainability Education, Earthscan, pp.183-184, ISBN: 9781844078783.



School/Dept Working Papers

Barton, J, Monk, N, Blanchard, R (2019) A comparison of batteries for the MECS project.

Barton, J, Monk, N, Blanchard, R (2019) A comparison of functions and safety features on electric pressure cookers.

Buckland, H, Eales, A, Brown, E, Cloke, J, Blanchard, R, Yona, L, Zalengera, C, Batchelor, S, Sieff, R, Nyienda, E, Bayani, E (2017) Malawi District Energy Officer Blueprint : recommendations paper.



Posters

Mukelabai, M, Wijayantha-Kahagala-Gamage, U, Blanchard, R (2022) Hydrogen technology adoption analysis using a Doughnut-PESTLE hydrogen model, The 3rd International Conference on Energy and Sustainable Futures (ICESF).

Mbewe, C, Claudio, G, Blanchard, R (2022) Life-cycle testing of batteries for solar eCook, Net Zero Doctoral Summer Showcase.

Chivunga, J, Lin, Z, Blanchard, R (2022) Extreme event identification and impacts of climate change on power systems, Net Zero Doctoral Summer Showcase.

Kulugomba, R, Mapoma, H, Blanchard, R, Gamula, G, Mlatho, P (2022) Evaluation of biogas potential in Malawi from livestock, Net Zero Doctoral Summer Showcase.

Mukelabai, M, Wijayantha-Kahagala-Gamage, U, Blanchard, R (2022) Is water the best way to transport hydrogen, Net Zero Doctoral Summer Showcase.

Mujjuni, F, Betts, T, Blanchard, R (2022) Phased approach to assessment of power systems resilience and adaptation measures to extreme weather events, Net Zero Doctoral Summer Showcase.

Barton, J, Bliss, M, Monk, N, Palmer, D, Blanchard, R (2021) PV system design issues for off-grid electric cooking, 3rd Generation PV in the Developing World Conference.

Blanchard, R, Barton, J, Mbewe, C, Monk, N, Rabut, B (2019) Design challenges for modernising energy cooking services [Poster], The India-UK Joint Virtual Clean Energy Centre 2nd Annual Conference.

Blanchard, R, Brown, E, Clements, A, Cloke, J, Mohr, A (2017) Theory and praxis: co-design complexities of community energy projects in Kenya [poster].

Batchelor, S, Blanchard, R, Brown, E, Cloke, J, Harrison, J, Sieff, R, Gathui, T (2017) Governing decentralised energy provision: approaches to energy transitions in Kenya [poster].

Lukuyu, J, Blanchard, R, Rowley, P, Osmore, A (2017) Techno-economic and risk analysis of investments in an off-grid solar milk cooling system [Poster].

Hussain, MA and Blanchard, R (2017) Developing a low cost solar powered water pump for deployment in developing nations for agricultural purposes.

Phiri, E, Rowley, P, Blanchard, R (2017) Meeting the water and energy needs in the rural areas of Malawi using solar PV technologies.

Chivunga, J, Lin, Z, Blanchard, R (Accepted for publication) Developing a power system resilience delivery model for Malawi’s electricity network, Faculty for the Future Fellows & Alumnae Forum.



Reports

Thornley, P, Rathi, B, Borah, A, Saha, B, Adams, J, Hiloidhari, M, Blanchard, R, Dinsdale, R, Nagarajan, S, Kumar, S, Vaidyanathan, S, Sharma, S, Patel, S, Sahota, S, Singh, S, Masakapalli, S (2022) Bioenergy technologies for a net zero transition: outcomes of UK-India bioenergy research scoping,ISBN: 9781854498106.

Sandwell, P, Candelise, C, Solomon, B, Few, S, Wu, B, Blanchard, R, Barton, J, Milovanovic, J (2022) The role of mini-grids for electricity access and climate change mitigation in India. DOI: 10.25561/94889.

Akinyele, D, Rayudu, R, Blanchard, R (2016) Sustainable microgrids for energy-poor communities: a spotlight on the planning dimensions.

Brown, ED, Cloke, J, Blanchard, R, Fisk, D, Gluyas, J, Jones, A, Read, D, Younger, PL (2013) What are the key issues regarding the role of geothermal energy in meeting energy needs in the global south?, pp.1-5.

Beresford-Webb, A, Blanchard, RE, Faiers, C (2001) Cyber-Trade Suffolk: Evaluation Report, CREATE, Suffolk College.

Blanchard, RE (1994) The Importance of Wind Energy For Wales, pp.1-21, Grwp Ynni'r Gorllewin.



Other

Blanchard, R (2007) Where is the sustainable innovation?, Society needs energy. It would be hard to argue that the world would not have seen the rapid increase in economic activity during the twentieth century were it not for the use of concentrated fossil fuels and nuclear power. However, this has come at a cost through emissions of greenhouse gases that inextricably link economic activity to global warming..



Getting in touch

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